Authors Approval/Disclosure: All authors have personally reviewed and given final approval of the version submitted, and neither the manuscript nor its data have been previously published or are currently under consideration of publication.
The Effect of Deep and Slow Breathing on Pain Perception, Autonomic Activity, and Mood Processing—An Experimental Study
Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011
Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 13, Issue 2, pages 215–228, February 2012
How to Cite
Busch, V., Magerl, W., Kern, U., Haas, J., Hajak, G. and Eichhammer, P. (2012), The Effect of Deep and Slow Breathing on Pain Perception, Autonomic Activity, and Mood Processing—An Experimental Study. Pain Medicine, 13: 215–228. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01243.x
- Issue online: 23 FEB 2012
- Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011
- Skin Conductance Level
Objective. Deep and slow breathing (DSB) techniques, as a component of various relaxation techniques, have been reported as complementary approaches in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes, but the relevance of relaxation for alleviating pain during a breathing intervention was not evaluated so far.
Methods. In order to disentangle the effects of relaxation and respiration, we investigated two different DSB techniques at the same respiration rates and depths on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood in 16 healthy subjects. In the attentive DSB intervention, subjects were asked to breathe guided by a respiratory feedback task requiring a high degree of concentration and constant attention. In the relaxing DSB intervention, the subjects relaxed during the breathing training. The skin conductance levels, indicating sympathetic tone, were measured during the breathing maneuvers. Thermal detection and pain thresholds for cold and hot stimuli and profile of mood states were examined before and after the breathing sessions.
Results. The mean detection and pain thresholds showed a significant increase resulting from the relaxing DSB, whereas no significant changes of these thresholds were found associated with the attentive DSB. The mean skin conductance levels indicating sympathetic activity decreased significantly during the relaxing DSB intervention but not during the attentive DSB. Both breathing interventions showed similar reductions in negative feelings (tension, anger, and depression).
Conclusion. Our results suggest that the way of breathing decisively influences autonomic and pain processing, thereby identifying DSB in concert with relaxation as the essential feature in the modulation of sympathetic arousal and pain perception.