• 1
    Naylor A, Flowers MW, Bramley JED. The value of dexamethasone in the postoperative treatment of lumbar disc prolapse. Orthop Clin North Am 1977;8:38.
  • 2
    Haimovic IC, Beresford HR. Dexamethasone is not superior to placebo for treating lumbosacral radicular pain. Neurology 1986;36:15931594.
  • 3
    Friedman BW, Esses D, Solorzano C, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of single-dose IM corticosteroid for radicular low back pain. Spine 2008;33:E624629.
  • 4
    White AH, Derby R, Wynne G. Epidural injections for diagnosis and treatment of low-back pain. Spine 1980;5:7886.
  • 5
    El-Khoury G, Ehara S, Weinstein JW, Montgomery WJ, Kathol MH. Epidural steroid injection: A procedure ideally performed with fluoroscopic control. Radiology 1988;168:554557.
  • 6
    Stitz MY, Sommer HM. Accuracy of blind versus fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injection. Spine 1999;24:13711376.
  • 7
    Price CM, Rogers PD, Prosser ASJ, Arden NK. Comparison of the caudal and lumbar approaches to the epidural space. Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:879882.
  • 8
    Bartynski WS, Grahovac SZ, Rothfus WE. Incorrect needle position during lumbar epidural steroid administration: Inaccuracy of loss air pressure resistance and requirement of fluoroscopy and epidurography during needle insertion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:502505.
  • 9
    Manchikanti L, Cash KA, Pampati V, McManus CD, Damron KS. Evaluation of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections. Pain Physician 2004;7:8192.
  • 10
    Mehta M, Salmon N. Extradural block. Confirmation of the injection site by X-ray monitoring. Anaesthesia 1985;40:10091012.
  • 11
    Whitlock EL, Bridwell KH, Gilula LA. Influence of needle tip position on injectate spread in 406 interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections. Radiology 2007;243:804811.
  • 12
    Friedman B, Nun MB, Zohar E, et al. Epidural steroids for treating “failed back surgery syndrome”: Is fluoroscopy really necessary? Anesth Analg 1999;88:367372.
  • 13
    Dilke TFW, Burry HC, Grahame R. Extradural corticosteroid injection in management of lumbar nerve root compression. BMJ 1973;2:635637.
  • 14
    Carette S, LeClaire R, Marcoux S, et al. Epidural corticosteroids injections for sciatica due to herniated nucleus pulposus. N Engl J Med 1997;336:16341640.
  • 15
    Valat JP, Giraudeau B, Rozenberg S, et al. Epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica: A randomised, double blind, controlled clinical trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2003;62:639643.
  • 16
    Breivik H, Hesla PE, Molnar I, Lind B. Treatment of chronic low back pain and sciatica. Comparison of caudal epidural injections of bupivacaine and methylprednisolone with bupivacaine followed by saline. In: Bonica JJ , Albe-Fessard D , eds. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, Vol. 1. New York: Raven Press; 1976:927932.
  • 17
    Bush K, Hillier S. A controlled study of caudal epidural injections of triamcinolone plus procaine for the management of intractable sciatica. Spine 1991;16:572575.
  • 18
    Bogduk N, Aprill C, Derby R. Epidural steroid injections. In: White AH , ed. Spine Care, Volume One: Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment, ch 22. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1995:322343.
  • 19
    Armon CA, Argoff CE, Samuels J, Backonja MM. Assessment: Use of epidural steroid injections to treat radicular lumbosacral pain. Report of Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2007;68:723729.
  • 20
    Olivo SA, Macedo LG, Gadotti IC, et al. Scales to assess the quality of randomized controlled trials: A systematic review. Phys Ther 2008;88:156175.
  • 21
    Cook RJ, Sackett DL. The number needed to treat: A clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ 1995;310:452454.
  • 22
    Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts RS. An assessment of clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. N Engl J Med 1988;318:17281733.
  • 23
    McQuay HJ, Moore RA. Using numerical results form systematic reviews in clinical practice. Ann Intern Med 1997;236:723730.
  • 24
    Gajraj NM. Selective nerve root blocks for low back pain and radiculopathy. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004;29:243256.
  • 25
    McClain RF, Kapural L, Mekhail NA. Epidural steroid therapy for back and leg pain: Mechanisms of action and efficacy. Spine J 2005;5:191201.
  • 26
    Manchikanti L. Transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections. Pain Physician 2000;3:374398.
  • 27
    Abdi S, Datta S, Lucas LF. Role of epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain: A systematic review of effectiveness and complications. Pain Physician 2005;8:127143.
  • 28
    Bhargava A, DePalma MJ, Ludwig S, Gelb D, Slipman CW. Injection therapy for lumbar radiculopathy. Curr Opin Orthop 2005;16:152157.
  • 29
    Buenaventura RM, Datta S, Abdi S, Smith HJS. Systematic review of therapeutic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections. Pain Physician 2009;12(1):233251.
  • 30
    De Palma MJ, Bhargava A, Slipman CW. A critical appraisal of the evidence for selective nerve root injection in the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:14771483.
  • 31
    Boswell MV, Hansen HC, Trescot AM, Hirsch JHA. Epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain and radiculopathy. Pain Physician 2003;6:319334.
  • 32
    Datta S, Benyamin RM, Manchikanti L. Evidence-based practice of lumbar epidural injections. Tech Reg Anesth Pain Manag 2009;13:281287.
  • 33
    Neira F, Ortega JL. Revisión del tratamiento con corticoides en el dolor de espaldasegún la medicina basada en la evidencia. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 2009;16:352369.
  • 34
    Levin JH. Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials in interventional spine: What the highest quality literature tells us. Spine J 2009;9:690703.
  • 35
    Levin KH. Nonsurgical interventions for spine pain. Neurol Clin 2007;25:495505.
  • 36
    Peterson C, Hodler J. Evidence-based radiology (part 1): Is there sufficient research to support the use of therapeutic injections for the spine and sacroiliac joints? Skeletal Radiol 2010;39:59.
  • 37
    Slipman CW, Chow DW. Therapeutic spinal corticosteroid injections for the management of radiculopathies. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2002;13:697711.
  • 38
    Roberts ST, Willick SE, Rho ME, Joshua D, Rittenberg JD. Efficacy of lumbosacral transforaminal epidural steroid injections: A systematic review. PM R 2009;1:657668.
  • 39
    Young IA, Hyman GS, Packia-Raj LN, Cole AJ. The use of lumbar epidural/transforaminal steroids for managing spinal disease. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2007;15:228238.
  • 40
    Jeong HS, Lee J, Kim SH, et al. Effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection by using a preganglionic approach: A prospective randomized controlled study. Radiology 2007;245:584590.
  • 41
    Lee JW, Kim SH, Choi JY, et al. Transforaminal epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy: Preganglionic versus conventional approach. Korean J Radiol 2006;7:139144.
  • 42
    Desai MJ, Shah B, Sayal PK. Epidural contrast flow patterns of transforaminal epidural steroid injections stratified by commonly used final needle-tip positions. Pain Med 2011;12:864870.
  • 43
    Park JW, Nam HS, Cho SK, et al. Kambin's triangle approach of lumbar transforaminal epidural injection with spinal stenosis. Ann Rehabil Med 2011;35:833843.
  • 44
    Blankenbaker DG, De Smet AA, Stanczak JD, Fine JP. Lumbar radiculopathy: Treatment with selective lumbar nerve blocks—Comparison of effectiveness of triamcinolone and betamethasone injection suspensions. Radiology 2005;237:738741.
  • 45
    Park CH, Lee SH, Kim BI. Comparison of the effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal epidural injection with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroids in lumbar radiating pain. Pain Med 2010;11:16541658.
  • 46
    Cooper G, Lutz GE, Boachie-Adjei O, Lin J. Effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injections in patients with degenerative lumbar scoliotic stenosis and radiculopathy. Pain Physician 2004;7:311317.
  • 47
    Giraudeau B, Rozenburg S, Valat S-P. Assessment of the clinically relevant change in pain for patients with sciatica. Ann Rheum Dis 2004;63:11801181.
  • 48
    Devulder J. Transforaminal nerve root sleeve injection with corticosteroids, hyaluronidase, and local anesthetic in the failed back surgery syndrome. J Spinal Disord 1998;11:151154.
  • 49
    Botwin KP, Skalkale DP. Epidural steroid injections in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis associated with epidural lipomatosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004;83:926930.
  • 50
    Rosenberg SK, Grabinsky A, Kooser C, Boswell MV. Effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injections in low back pain: A one-year experience. Pain Physician 2002;5:266270.
  • 51
    Delport EG, Cucuzzella AR, Marley JK, Pruitt CM, Fisher JR. Treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with epidural steroid injections: A retrospective outcome study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:479484.
  • 52
    Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, et al. Fluoroscopically guided lumbar transformational epidural steroid injections in degenerative lumbar stenosis. An outcome study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002;8:898905.
  • 53
    Narozny M, Zanetti M, Boos N. Therapetuic efficacy of selective nerve root blocks in the treatment of lumbar radicular leg pain. Swiss Med Wkly 2001;131:7580.
  • 54
    Cyteval C, Fesquet N, Thomas E, et al. Predictive factors of efficacy of periradicular corticosteroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. AJNR. Am J Neuroradiol 2006;27:978982.
  • 55
    Smith CC, Booker T, Schaufele MK, Weiss P. Interlaminar versus transforaminal epidural steroid injections for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Pain Med 2010;11:15111515.
  • 56
    Weiner BK, Fraser RD. Foraminal injection for lateral lumbar disc herniation. J Bone Joint Surg 1997;79B:804807.
  • 57
    Wang JC, Lin E, Brodke DS, Youssef JA. Epidural injections for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar herniated discs. J Spinal Disord Tech 2002;15:269272.
  • 58
    Yang SCY, Fu TS, Lai PL, et al. Transforaminal epidural steroid injection for diskectomy candidates: An outcome study with a miniumum of two-year follow-up. Chang Gung Med J 2006;29:9399.
  • 59
    Choi SJ, Song JS, Kim C, et al. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict the clinical outcome of non-surgical treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Korean J Radiol 2007;8:156163.
  • 60
    Lutz GE, Vad VB, Wisneski RJ. Fluoroscopic transforaminal lumbar epidural steroids: An outcome study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:13621366.
  • 61
    Kabatas S, Cansever T, Yilmaz C, et al. Transforaminal epidural steroid injection via a preganglionic approach for lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar discogenic pain with radiculopathy. Neurol India 2010;58:242258.
  • 62
    Viton JM, Peretti-Viton P, Rubino T, Delarque A, Salamon N. Short-term assessment of periradicular corticosteroid injections in lumbar radiculopathy associated with disc pathology. Neuroradiology 1998;40:5962.
  • 63
    Michel JL, Lemaire S, Bourbon H, et al. Infilatration foraminale L5-S1 radiologuidée dans le traitement de la lombosciatique S1. J Radiol 2004;85:19371941.
  • 64
    Gerszten PC, Smuck M, Rathmell JP, et al.; the SPINE Study Group. Plasma disc decompression compared with fluoroscopy guided transforaminal epidural steroid injections for symptomatic contained lumbar disc herniation: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Neurosurg Spine 2010;12:357371.
  • 65
    Lee JH, Moon J, Lee SH. Comparison of effectiveness according to different approaches of epidural steroid injection in lumbosacral herniated disk and spinal stenosis. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2009;22:8389.
  • 66
    Ackerman WE, Ahmad M. The efficacy of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar disc herniations. Anesth Analg 2007;104:12171222.
  • 67
    Schaufele MK, Hatch L, Jones W. Interlaminar versus transforaminal epidural injections for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniations. Pain Physician 2006;9:361366.
  • 68
    Rados I, Sakic K, Fingler M, Leonardo Kapural L. Efficacy of interlaminar vs transforaminal epidural steroid injection for the treatment of chronic unilateral radicular pain: Prospective, randomized study. Pain Med 2011;12:13161321.
  • 69
    Manchikanti L, Pakanati R, Pampati V. Comparison of three routes of epidural steroid injections in low back pain. Pain Digest 1999;9:277285.
  • 70
    Kolsi I, Delectrin J, Berthelot JM, et al. Efficacy of nerve root versus interspinous injections of glucocorticoids in the treatment of disk-related sciatica. A pilot, prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Joint Bone Spine 2000;67:113118.
  • 71
    Thomas E, Cyteval C, Abiad L, et al. Efficacy of transforaminal versus interspinous corticosteroid injection in discal radiculalgia—A prospective, randomised, double-blind study. Clin Rheumatol 2003;22:299304.
  • 72
    Mendoza-Lattes S, Weiss A, Found E, Zimmerman B, Gao Y. Comparable effectiveness of caudal vs trans-foraminal epidural steroid injections. Iowa Orthop J 2009;29:9196.
  • 73
    Riew KD, Yin Y, Gilula L, et al. The effect of nerve-root injections on the need for operative treatment of lumbar radicular pain. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:15891593.
  • 74
    Karppinen J, Malmivaara A, Kurunlahti M, et al. Periradicular infiltration for sciatica. A randomized controlled trial. Spine 2001;26:10591067.
  • 75
    Vad VB, Bhat AL, Lutz GE, Cammisa F. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections in lumbosacral radiculopathy. Spine 2002;27:1116.
  • 76
    Ng L, Chaudhary N, Sell P. The efficacy of corticosteroids in periradicular infiltration for chronic radicular pain. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Spine 2005;30:857862.
  • 77
    Ghahreman A, Ferch R, Bogduk N. The efficacy of transforaminal injection of steroids for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain. Pain Med 2010;11:11491168.
  • 78
    Tafazal S, Ng L, Chaudhary N, Sell P. Corticosteroids in peri-radicular infiltration for radicular pain: A randomised double-blind controlled trial. One year results and subgroup analysis. Eur Spine J 2009;18:12201225.
  • 79
    Riew KD, Park JB, Cho YS, et al. Nerve root blocks in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain. A minimum five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg 2006;88:17221725.
  • 80
    Karppinen J, Ohinmaa A, Malmivaara A, et al. Cost-effectiveness of periradicular infiltration for sciatica. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Spine 2001;26:10591067.
  • 81
    Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, et al. Complications of fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar epidural injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:10451050.
  • 82
    Karaman H, Kavak GO, Tufel A, Yildrim ZB. The complications of transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections. Spine 2011;36:E819824.
  • 83
    Goodman BS, Bayazitoglu M, Mallempati S, Noble BR, Geffen JF. Dural puncture and subdural injection: A complication of lumbar transforaminal epidural injections. Pain Physician 2007;10:697705.
  • 84
    Furman MB, O'Brien EM, Zgleszewski TM. Incidence of intravascular penetration in transforaminal lumbosacral epidural steroid injections. Spine 2000;25:26282632.
  • 85
    Haspeslagh S, van Zundert J, Puylaert M, et al. Unilateral diagnostic infiltration of lumbar L3 nerve root resulting in an inadvertent discogram: The importance of fluoroscopic guidance in interventional pain therapy. Anesthesiology 2004;100:10191021.
  • 86
    Cohen SP, Maine DN, Shockey SM, Kudchadkar S, Griffith S. Inadvertent disk injection during transforaminal epidural steroid injection: Steps for prevention and management. Pain Med 2008;6:688694.
  • 87
    Finn KP, Case JL. Disk entry: A complication of transforaminal epidural injection—A case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:14891491.
  • 88
    Houten JK, Errico TJ. Paraplegia after lumbosacral nerve root block: Report of three cases. Spine J 2002;2:7075.
  • 89
    Huntoon M, Martin D. Paralysis after transforaminal epidural injection and previous spinal surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004;29:494495.
  • 90
    Somyaji HS, Saifuddin A, Casey ATH, Briggs TWR. Spinal cord infarction following therapeutic computed tomography-guided left L2 nerve root injection. Spine 2005;30:E106108.
  • 91
    Glaser SE, Falco FM. Paraplegia following a thoracolumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection: A case report. Pain Physician 2005;8:309314.
  • 92
    Kennedy DJ, Dreyfuss P, Aprill CN, Bogduk N. Paraplegia following image-guided transforaminal lumbar spine epidural steroid injection: Two case reports. Pain Med 2009;19:13891394.
  • 93
    Bogduk N. Epidural steroid injection. In: Fishman SM , Ballantyne JC , Rathmell JP , eds. Bonica's Management of Pain, 4th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2010:14231437.
  • 94
    Bogduk N. Complications associated with transforaminal injections. In: Neal JM , Rathmell JP , eds. Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:259265.
  • 95
    Bogduk N, Dreyfuss P, Baker R, et al. Complications of spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures. Pain Med 2008;6:S1134.
  • 96
    Derby R, Date ES, Lee JH, Lee SH, Lee CH. Size and aggregation of corticosteroids used for epidural injections. Pain Med 2008;9:227234.
  • 97
    Dawley JD, Moeller-Bertram T, Wallace MS, Patel PM. Intra-arterial injection in the rat brain. Evaluation of steroids used for transforaminal epidurals. Spine 2009;34:16381643.
  • 98
    International Spine Intervention Society. Lumbar transforaminal injection of corticosteroids. In: Bogduk N , ed. Practice Guidelines for Spinal Diagnostic and Treatment Procedures. San Francisco, CA: International Spine Intervention Society; 2004:163187.
  • 99
    Karasek M, Bogduk N. Temporary neurologic deficit after cervical transforaminal injection of local anesthetic. Pain Med 2004;5:202205.
  • 100
    Ghahreman A, Bogduk N. Predictors of a favorable response to transforaminal injection of steroids in patients with lumbar radicular pain due to disc herniation. Pain Med 2011;12:871879.