SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Akizawa T, Koshikawa S, Iida N, et al. Clinical effects of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on orthostatic hypotension in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 2002;90:384390.
  • 2
    Axelrod FB, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Berlin D, Kopin IJ. Pattern of plasma levels of catecholamines in familial dysautonomia. Clin Auton Res 1996;6:205209.
  • 3
    Azuma T, Suzuki T, Mizuno R, et al. Studies of neurocirculatory effects of long-term L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine administration in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Acta Neurol Scand 1988;77:409413.
  • 4
    Bartholini J, Constantinidis J, Puig M, Tissot R, Pletscher A. The stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine as precursors of norepinephrine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1975;193:523532.
  • 5
    Biaggioni I, Robertson D. Endogenous restoration of noradrenaline by precursor therapy in dopamine-β-hydroxylase deficiency. Lancet 1987;2:11701172.
  • 6
    Birkmayer W, Birkmayer G, Lechner H, Riederer P. DL-3,4- threo-DOPS in Parkinson's disease: Effects on orthostatic hypotension and dizziness. J Neural Transm 1983;58:305313.
  • 7
    Blaschko H, Burn JH, Langemann H. The formation of noradrenaline from dihydroxyphenylserine. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1950;5:431437.
  • 8
    Bradbury S, Eggleston C. Postural hypotension: An autopsy upon a case. Am Heart J 1927;3:105106.
  • 9
    Cannon WB. A law of denervation. Am J Med Sci 1939;198:737750.
  • 10
    Carvalho MJ, Van Den Meiracker AH, Boomsma F, et al. Improved orthostatic tolerance in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with unnatural noradrenaline precursor L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. J Auton Nerv Syst 1997;62:6371.
  • 11
    Chazono Y, Suzuki T, Kato T, Mitamoto S. Antigenicity study of L-DOPS. Yakuri To Chiryou 1987;15(2, Suppl): 301 (in Japanese).
  • 12
    Contin M, Riva R, Martinelli P, Cortelli P, Albani F, Baruzzi A. Pharmacodynamic modeling of oral levodopa: Clinical application in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1993;43:367371.
  • 13
    Crout JR, Sjoerdsma A. Turnover and metabolism of catecholamines in patients with pheochromocytoma. J Clin Invest 1964;43:94102.
  • 14
    Freeman R, Landsberg L, Young J. The treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension with 3,4-DL- threo-dihydroxyphenylserine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Neurology 1999;53:21512157.
  • 15
    Freeman R, Young J, Landsberg L, Lipsitz L. The treatment of postprandial hypotension in autonomic failure with 3,4-DL- threo-dihydroxyphenylserine. Neurology 1996;47:14141420.
  • 16
    Gentric A, Fouilhoux A, Caroff M, Mottier D, Jouquan J. Dopamine B hydroxylase deficiency responsible for severe dysautonomic orthostatic hypotension in an elderly patient. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993;41:550551.
  • 17
    Goldstein D, Horwitz D, Keiser HR, Polinsky RJ, Kopin IJ. Plasma l-[3H]norepinephrine, d-[14C]norepinephrine, and d,l-[3H]isoproterenol kinetics in essential hypertension. J Clin Invest 1983;72:17481758.
  • 18
    Goldstein DS. Dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease: Neurocardiological abnormalities. Lancet Neurol 2003;2:669676.
  • 19
    Goldstein DS. Orthostatic hypotension as an early finding in Parkinson disease. Clin Auton Res 2006;16:4664.
  • 20
    Goldstein DS. The autonomic nervous system in health and disease. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001.
  • 21
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Dendi R, Bruce S, Li S-T. Orthostatic hypotension from sympathetic denervation in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2002;58:12471255.
  • 22
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Dendi R, Li ST, Brentzel S, Vernino S. Pandysautonomia associated with impaired ganglionic neurotransmission and circulating antibody to the neuronal nicotinic receptor. Clin Auton Res 2002;12:281285.
  • 23
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Frank SM, et al. Cardiac sympathetic dysautonomia in chronic orthostatic intolerance syndromes. Circulation 2002;106:23582365.
  • 24
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Kaufmann H, Freeman R. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the norepinephrine precursor L- threo-DOPS in primary chronic autonomic failure. Clin Auton Res 2004;14:363368.
  • 25
    Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Li ST, Bruce S, Metman LV, Cannon RO. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson disease. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:338347.
  • 26
    Goldstein DS, McRae A, Holmes C, Dalakas MC. Autoimmune autonomic failure in a patient with myeloma-associated Shy-Drager syndrome. Clin Auton Res 1996;6:15.
  • 27
    Goldstein DS, Polinsky RJ, Garty M, et al. Patterns of plasma levels of catechols in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Ann Neurol 1989;26:558563.
  • 28
    Gordon H, Hare FW. Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension: Report of a case with autopsy. J Indiana State Med Assoc 1957;50:3337.
  • 29
    Gross M, Bannister R, Godwin-Austen R. Orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. Lancet 1972;1: 174176.
  • 30
    Grossman E, Chang PC, Hoffman A, Tamrat M, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS. Tracer norepinephrine kinetics: Dependence on regional blood flow and the site of infusion. Am J Physiol 1991;260:R946R952.
  • 31
    Grubb BP, Karas B, Kosinski D, Boehm K. Preliminary observations on the use of midodrine hydrochloride in the treatment of refractory neurocardiogenic syncope. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 1999;3:139143.
  • 32
    Halliday GM, Li YW, Blumbergs PC, et al. Neuropathology of immunohistochemically identified brainstem neurons in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1990;27:373385.
  • 33
    Hardie RJ, Malcolm SL, Lees AJ, Stern GM, Allen JG. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease who exhibit on-off fluctuations. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1986;22:429436.
  • 34
    Hasegawa Y, Koike Y, Matsuoka Y, Takahashi A. Postprandial hypotension.s yncope in Shy–Drager syndrome and its treatment with oral L-DOPS. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 1989;78:939943 (in Japanese).
  • 35
    Hasegawa Y, Takahashi A. Clinical efficacy of L-DOPS in treatment of Shy–Drager syndrome: Effects on orthostatic hypotension and postprandial hypotension. In: NarabayashiH, MizunoY. Norepinephrine Deficiency and Its Treatment with L-threo-DOPS in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. The Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River , NY , 1993;133149.
  • 36
    Hirohashi A, Kawanami N, Kawamura S, Nishimura H, Matsumoto Y, Kato T. Reproduction studies of L-DOPS in rats and rabbits. Yakuri To Chiryou 1987;15(2, Suppl): 283 (in Japanese).
  • 37
    Hoeldtke RD, Cilmi KM. Norepinephrine secretion and production in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:246252.
  • 38
    Hoeldtke RD, Cilmi KM, Mattis-Graves K. DL-Threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine does not exert a pressor effect in orthostatic hypotension. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1984;36:302306.
  • 39
    Iida N, Tsubakihara Y, Shirai D, Imada A, Suzuki M. Treatment of dialysis-induced hypotension with L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. NephrolDial Transplant 1994;9:11301135.
  • 40
    Ishikawa Y, Kato Y, Murakami Y, Inoue T, Koshiyama H, Imura H. Effect of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-serine (L-DOPS) on catecholamine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in anesthetized rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1987;184:197200.
  • 41
    Iwase S, Mano T, Kunimoto M, Saito M. Effect of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans. J Auton Nerv Syst 1992;39:159167.
  • 42
    Jacob G, Costa F, Shannon JR, et al. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000;343:10081014.
  • 43
    Jankovic J, Gilden JL, Hiner BC, et al. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with midodrine. Am J Med 1993;95:3848.
  • 44
    Jennings G, Korner P, Willett I, et al. Assessment of human sympathetic nervous system activity from measurements of norepinephrine turnover. Hypertension 1988;11:320.
  • 45
    Kachi T, Iwase S, Mano T, Saito M, Kunimoto M, Sobue I. Effect of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on muscle sympathetic nerve activities in Shy-Drager syndrome. Neurology 1988;38:10911094.
  • 46
    Kaler SG, Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Salerno JA, Gahl WA. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical pattern in Menkes' disease. Ann Neurol 1993;33:171175.
  • 47
    Kaler SG, Holmes CS, Goldstein DS. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency associated with mutations in a copper transporter gene. Adv Pharmacol 1998;42:6668.
  • 48
    Kato T, Karai N, Katsuyama M, Nakamura M, Katsube J. Studies on the activity of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylserine (L-DOPS) as a catecholamine precursor in the brain. Comparison with that of L-dopa. Biochem Pharmacol 1987;36:30513057.
  • 49
    Kato T, Katsuyama M, Karai N, Hirose A, Nakamura M, Katsube J. Reversal of the reserpine-induced ptosis by L-threo-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylserine (L-threo-DOPS), a (-)-norepinephrine precursor, and its potentiation by imipramine or nialamide. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 1986;332:243246.
  • 50
    Katsuyama M, Kato T, Karai N, Nakamura M, Katsube J. Reversal by L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L- threo-DOPS), a L-norepinephrine precursor of reserpine- or tetrabenazine-induced hypothermia. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1986;283:6170.
  • 51
    Kaufmann H, Oribe E, Yahr MD. Differential effect of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine in pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 1991;3:143148.
  • 52
    Kaufmann H, Oribe E, Yahr MD. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-serine. In: Narabayashi H, Mizuno Y. Norepinephrine Deficiency and Its Treatment with L-threo-DOPS in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. The Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River , NY , 1993;97104.
  • 53
    Kaufmann H, Saadia D, Voustianiouk A, et al. Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Circulation 2003;108:724728.
  • 54
    Kawabata A, Kasamatsu K, Umeda N, Takagi H. The noradrenaline precursor L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphe-nylserine exhibits antinociceptive activity via central alpha-adrenoceptors in the mouse. Br J Pharmacol 1994;111:503508.
  • 55
    Kempster PA, Frankel JP, Bovingdon M, Webster R, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Levodopa peripheral pharmacoki-netics and duration of motor response in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:718723.
  • 56
    Kohda A, Misaki Y, Sako H, Yamada H, Kamida Y, Inoue K. Acute toxicity study of L-DOPS in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Yakuri To Chiryou 1987;15(2,Suppl): 257 (in Japanese).
  • 57
    Kyle RA. Clinical aspects of multiple myeloma and related disorders including amyloidosis. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1999;47:148157.
  • 58
    Kyle RA, Bayrd ED. Amyloidosis: Review of 236 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1975;54:271299.
  • 59
    Low PA, Gilden JL, Freeman R, Sheng KN, McElligott MA. Efficacy of midodrine vs placebo in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. A randomized, double-blind multicenter study. Midodrine Study Group. JAMA 1997;277:10461051.
  • 60
    Man in't Veld AJ, Boomsma F, Van Den Meiracker AH, Julien C, Lenders J, Schalekamp MA. d,l- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine restores sympathetic control and cures orthostatic hypotension in dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency. J Hypertens Suppl 1988;6:S547549.
  • 61
    Maruyama T, Tamaru F, Yamagisawa N. A case of progressive supranuclear palsy dramatically improved with L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1992;32:606611 (in Japanese).
  • 62
    Maruyama W, Nakahara D, Naoi M. A new metabolic pathway of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine, a precursor amino acid of norepinephrine, in the brain. Studies by in vivo microdialysis. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 1994;7:2133.
  • 63
    Maruyama W, Naoi M, Narabayashi H. Study on the metabolism of droxidopa in humans. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1994;34:991995 (in Japanese).
  • 64
    Mathias CJ, Bannister RB, Cortelli P, et al. Clinical, autonomic and therapeutic observations in two siblings with postural hypotension and sympathetic failure due to an inability to synthesize noradrenaline from dopamine because of a deficiency of dopamine beta hydroxylase. Quart JMed 1990;75:617633.
  • 65
    Mathias CJ, Senard JM, Braune S, et al. L- threo-dihydroxyphenylserine L- threo-DOPS; droxidopa) in the management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: A multi-national, multi-center, dose-ranging study in multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Clin Auton Res 2001;11:235242.
  • 66
    Matsubara S, Sawa Y, Yokoji H, Takamori M. Shy-Drager syndrome. Effect of fludrocortisone and L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on the blood pressure and regional cerebral blood flow. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:994997.
  • 67
    McClellan KJ, Wiseman LR, Wilde MI. Midodrine. A review of its therapeutic use in the management of orthostatic hypotension. Drugs Aging 1998;12:7686.
  • 68
    Micieli G, Martignoni E, Cavallini A, Sandrini G, Nappi G. Postprandial and orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1987;37:386393.
  • 69
    Miyashita N, Kondo T, Wakiya M, et al. A 61-year-old man with progressive gait disturbance, freezing, and vertical gaze paresis who developed esophagus cancer. No To Shinkei 1998;50:10411052 (in Japanese).
  • 70
    Muneta S, Iwata T, Hiwada K, Murakami E, Sato Y, Imamura Y. Effect of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-serine on orthostatic hypotension in a patient with spinal cord injury. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:243247.
  • 71
    Nakamura M, Kato T, Katsuyama M, Karai N, Kumasaka Y. Penetration of L- threo-DOPS, a precursor of norepinephrine, into the brain in various experimental animals. Yakuri To Chiryou 1987;15:367374 (in Japanese).
  • 72
    Naoi M, Nagatsu T. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. J Neurochem 1986;47:604607.
  • 73
    Naoi M, Takahashi T, Kuno N, Nagatsu T. L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) aldolase: Anew enzyme cleaving DOPS into protocatechualdehyde and glycine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1987;143:482488.
  • 74
    Narabayashi H, Mizuno R. Norepinephrine Deficiency and Its Treatment with L-threo-DOPS in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. The Parthenon Publishing Group: New York , 1993.
  • 75
    Narabayashi H, Yokochi F, Ogawa T, Igakura T. Analysis of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine effect on motor and psychological symptoms in Parkinson's disease. No To Shinkei 1991;43:263268 (in Japanese).
  • 76
    Nishino K, Sasaki T, Takahashi K, Chiba M, Ito T. The norepinephrine precursor L- threo-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylserine facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. J Clin Neurosci 2001;8:547550.
  • 77
    Nutt JG, Woodward WR. Levodopa pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fluctuating parkinsonian patients. Neurology 1986;36:739744.
  • 78
    Nylin G, Levander M. Studies on the circulation with the aid of tagged erythrocytes in a case of orthostatic hypotension (asympathicotonic hypotension). Ann Intern Med 1948;28:723746.
  • 79
    Ogawa N, Yamamoto M, Takayama H. L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Med 1985;16:525534.
  • 80
    Omodaka H, Kohda A, Nakayama Y, Uwakawa K, Inoue K, Yamamoto T. Three months oral toxicity study of L-DOPS in dogs. Yakuri To Chiryou 1987;15(2, Suppl): 267 (in Japanese).
  • 81
    Ota S, Tsuchiya K. Pure akinesia presenting with antecollis. No To Shinkei 2005;57:893898 (in Japanese).
  • 82
    Perez-Lugones A, Schweikert R, Pavia S, et al. Usefulness of midodrine in patients with severely symptomatic neurocardiogenic syncope: A randomized control study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2001;12:935938.
  • 83
    Polinsky RJ, Kopin IJ, Ebert MH, Weise V. Pharmacologic distinction of different orthostatic hypotension syndromes. Neurology 1981;31:17.
  • 84
    Rajput AH, Rozdilsky B. Dysautonomia in Parkinsonism: A clinicopathological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:10921100.
  • 85
    Roessmann U, Van den Noort S, McFarland DE. Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Arch Neurol 1971;24:503510.
  • 86
    Sasa M, Ohno Y, Nabatame H, Yoshimura N, Takaori S. Effects of L-threo-DOPS, an L-noradrenaline precursor, on locus coeruleus-originating neurons in spinal trigeminal nucleus. Brain Res 1987;420:157161.
  • 87
    Schatz IJ. Farewell to the “Shy-Drager Syndrome.” Ann Intern Med 1996;125:7475.
  • 88
    Schober R, Langston JW, Forno LS. Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Biochemical and pathologic observations in 2 cases. Eur Neurol 1975;13:177188.
  • 89
    Semba J, Nankai M, Okubo Y, Kato M, Matsuura M, Takahashi R. Neuroendocrinological effects of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), a putative norepinephrine precursor, on healthy volunteers. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1990;44:7378.
  • 90
    Semba J, Takahashi R. The effects of L- threo-dihydroxyphenylserine on norepinephrine metabolism in rat brain. Psychiatry Res 1985;15:319326.
  • 91
    Senard JM, Rai S, Lapeyre-Mestre M, et al. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:584589.
  • 92
    Senard JM, Valet P, Durrieu G, et al. Adrenergic supersensitivity in parkinsonians with orthostatic hypotension. Eur J Clin Invest 1990;20:613619.
  • 93
    Shy GM, Drager GA. A neurological syndrome associated with orthostatic hypotension: A clinical-pathologic study. Arch Neurol 1960;2:511527.
  • 94
    Spector S, Tarver J, Berkowitz B. Effects of drugs and physiological factors in the disposition of catechol-amines in blood vessels. Pharmacol Rev 1972;24:191202.
  • 95
    Sugata S, Ishihara S, Watanabe Y, Nagata Y, Matsushima Y. A chemical model of catechol-O-methyltrans-ferase. Methylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in aqueous solution. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1989;37:11431146.
  • 96
    Suzuki T. Autonomic failure in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: Treatment with L- threo-DOPS. In: NarabayashiH, MizunoY. Norepinephrine Deficiency and Its Treatment with L-threo-DOPS in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. The Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River , NY , 1993;151161.
  • 97
    Suzuki T, Higa S, Sakoda S, et al. Orthostatic hypotension in familial amyloid polyneuropathy: Treatment with DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. Neurology 1981;31:13231326.
  • 98
    Suzuki T, Sakoda S, Ueji M, et al. Treatment of parkinsonism with L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine: A pharmacokinetic study. Neurology 1984;34:14461450.
  • 99
    Takagi H, Harima A. Analgesic effect of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS) in patients with chronic pain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1996;6:4347.
  • 100
    Tanaka H, Yamaguchi H, Mino M. The effects of the noradrenaline precursor, L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine, in children with orthostatic intolerance. Clin Auton Res 1996;6:189193.
  • 101
    Thompson JM, O'Callaghan CJ, Kingwell BA, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Total norepinephrine spillover, muscle sympathetic nerve activity and heart-rate spectral analysis in a patient with dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency. J Auton Nerv Syst 1995;55:198206.
  • 102
    Timmers HJ, Deinum J, Wevers RA, Lenders JW. Congenital dopamine-beta-hydroxylase deficiency in humans. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1018:520523.
  • 103
    Tohgi H, Abe T, Takahashi S. The effects of L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on the total norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and freezing gait in parkinsonian patients. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 1993;5:2734.
  • 104
    Tohgi H, Abe T, Takahashi S, Takahashi J, Ueno M, Nozaki Y. Effect of a synthetic norepinephrine precursor, L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine on the total norepinephrine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of parkinsonian patients. Neurosci Lett 1990;116:194197.
  • 105
    Weil-Malherbe H, Axelrod J, Tomchick R. Blood-brain barrier for adrenaline. Science 1959;129:12261227.
  • 106
    Weil-Malherbe H, Whitby LG, Axelrod J. The uptake of circulating [3H]norepinephrine by the pituitary gland and various areas of the brain. J Neurochem 1961;8:5564.
  • 107
    Yamamoto M, Fujii S, Hatanaka Y. Result of long-term administration of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-serine in patients with pure akinesia as an early symptom of progressive supranuclear palsy. Clin Neuropharmacol 1997;20:371373.
  • 108
    Yanagisawa N, Ikeda S, Hashimoto T, et al. Effects of L- threo-Dops on orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. No To Shinkei 1998;50:157163 (in Japanese).
  • 109
    Yoshida M, Noguchi S, Kuramoto S. L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine treatment for gait apraxia in parkinsonian patients. Kurume Med J 1989;36:6774.
  • 110
    Yoshikawa H, Kawai K, Inoue S, et al. A case of diabetic orthostatic hypotension effectively managed with L-DOPS (L- threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine). Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 1987;76:16951700 (in Japanese).
  • 111
    Yoshikawa H, Oda Y, Sakajiri K, et al. Pure akinesia manifested neuroleptic malignant syndrome: A clinical variant of progressive supranuclear palsy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1997;93:306309.
  • 112
    Ziegler MG, Lake CR, Kopin IJ. Deficient sympathetic nervous response in familial dysautonomia. N Engl J Med 1976;294:630633.
  • 113
    Ziegler MG, Lake CR, Kopin IJ. The sympathetic-nervous-system defect in primary orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med 1977;296:293297.