• 1
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced ejection fraction and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:293302.
  • 2
    The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:685691.
  • 3
    Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, et al. The effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:669677.
  • 4
    The Consensus Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Result of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Engl J Med. 1987;316:14291435.
  • 5
    Enalapril Data Base. West Point, PA: Merck and Co., Inc.
  • 6
    Lisinopril Data Base. Wilmington, DE: Zeneca Pharmaceuticals.
  • 7
    Dickstein K, Chang P, Willenheimer R, et al. Comparison of the effects of losartan and enalapril on clinical status and exercise performance in patients with moderate or severe congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:438445.
  • 8
    Crozier I, Ikram H, Awan N, et al. Losartan in heart failure. Hemodynamic effects and tolerability. Losartan hemodynamic study group. Circulation. 1995;91(3):691697.
  • 9
    Lang RM, Kayam U, Yellen LG, et al. Comparative effects of losartan and enalapril on exercise capacity. Prim Cardiol. 1995;21:1415.
  • 10
    Gottlieb SS, Dickstein K, Fleck E, et al. Hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1993;88:16021609.
  • 11
    Klinger G, Jaramillo N, Ikram H, et al. Effects of losartan on exercise capacity, morbidity and mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29(suppl A);205A.
  • 12
    Pitt B, Segal R, Martinez FA, et al, on behalf of Elite Study Investigators. Randomized trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE). Lancet. 1997;349:9058:747752.
  • 13
    Losartan Data Base. West Point, PA: Merck and Co.
  • 14
    Burnier M, Waeber B, Brunner HR. Clinical pharmacology of angiotensin II receptor antagonism. Losartan potassium in healthy subjects. J Hypertens. 1995;13(suppl 1):S23S28.
  • 15
    Burnier M, Rutschmann B, Nussberger J, et al. Salt-dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects. Hypertens. 1993;22:339347.
  • 16
    Miura S, Ideishi M, Sakai T, et al. Angiotensin II formation by an alternative pathway during exercise in humans. J Hypertens. 1994;12:11771181.
  • 17
    Urata H, Kinoshita A, Misono KS, et al. Identification of a highly specific chymase as the major angiotensin II-forming enzyme in the human chymase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265(22):348357.
  • 18
    Urata H, Strobel F, Ganten D. Widespread tissue distributio of human chymase. J Hypertens. 1994;12:S17S22.
  • 19
    Timmermans P, Wong PC, Chin AT. Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev. 1993;45:205251.
  • 20
    Graves I. Bradykinin-mediated effects of ACE inhibition. Kidney Int. 1992;42:10201029.
  • 21
    Hartman JC. The role of bradykinin and nitric oxide in the cardioprotective action of ACE inhibitors. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60:789792.
  • 22
    Goodfriend MD, Elliot M. Angiotensin receptors and their antagonists. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:16491653.