• Epilepsy;
  • Anticonvulsants;
  • Drug-induced abnormalities;
  • Hormones;
  • Reproduction;
  • Hypothalmus;
  • Pituitary;
  • Menstrual cycle

Summary: : The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a complex system within which both positive and negative feedback occur among its elements and higher brain systems. The occurrence of seizures and changes in the secretion of pituitary hormones can affect the feedback loop. Both seizures and antiepileptic drugs can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of males and females and cause changes in hormones and sexuality. Reproductive dysfunction has a social impact because of reduced fertility. Once conception occurs, live birth rates are not diminished. Prospective studies of men and women with epilepsy are needed.