Summary: We performed positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]deuterium-deprenyl in 9 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing evaluation for possible epilepsy surgery. Seven patients had unilateral and 2 had bilateral mesiotemporal epileptic foci based on the preoperative investigation including ictal EEG discharges and PET with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). Deprenyl is an irreversible inhibitor of mono-amine oxidase type B (MAO-B) with a very high affinity for the enzyme. In the brain, MAO-B is preferentially located in astrocytes, and a previous in vitro study showed increased binding of the ligand in sclerotic hippocampi. Dynamically acquired N-[methyl-11C]-a, a-di-deutero-L-deprenyl distributions in PET images were analyzed graphically, and the focus regions were assessed visually on the PET images. In addition, the accumulation rate and distribution volume of the tracer relative to the cerebellar cortex were measured in standardized homologous temporal regions by semiquantitative methods. Uptake of [11C]deuterium-deprenyl was significantly increased in the epileptogenic temporal lobes, both apparently and semiquantitatively. By calculating mean inter-lobar ratios, we identified the temporal lobe containing the epileptic focus in six unilateral cases. One case was ambiguous but was not falsely localized. The two bilateral cases were correctly identified as such. Our results suggest that PET with [11C]deuterium-deprenyl might be a useful method for identification of epileptogenic temporal lobes.