Summary: All antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential for adverse effects on cognition and behavior. Most of the major AEDs, administered in therapeutic doses, cause little or no cognitive or behavioral impairment in group studies. However, individual variability is considerable, and some patients do not tolerate low serum levels, whereas others tolerate high levels without subjective or objective effects. In the past, carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) have been reported to have the fewest adverse cognitive and behavioral effects in children and adults. However, several recent, well-controlled studies have not found significant differences between the effects of phenytoin (PHT) and those of CBZ or VPA. Greater adverse effects have been found for phenobarbi-tal (PB). However, we must use environmentally relevant measures of cognitive and behavioral functioning to measure effects on daily functioning. Future studies must define cognitive and behavioral toxicity in subpopulations (e.g., post-traumatic epilepsy, mental retardation, depression) and with the new AEds.