SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Anonymous. American Academy of Paediatrics Committee on Drugs: anticonvulsants and pregnancy. Paediatrics 1979;63:3313.
  • 2
    Janz D. Anti-epileptic drugs and pregnancy: altered utilization patterns and teratogenesis. Epilepsia 1982;23(suppl 1):5343.
  • 3
    Yerby MS. Problems and management of the pregnant women with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1987;28(suppl 3):2936.
  • 4
    Teramo K, Hiilesmaa VK. Pregnancy and fetal complications in epileptic pregnancies: review of the literature. In: JanzD, DamM, RichensA, BossiL, HelgeH, SchmidtD, eds. Epilepsy, pregnancy and the child. New York Raven Press, 1982:539.
  • 5
    Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V, Bardy A, Saarikoski S. Fetal heart rate during a maternal grand ma1 epileptic seizure. J Perinat Med 1979; 7:36.
  • 6
    Orringer CE, Eustace JC, Wunsch CD, Gardner LB. Natural history of lactic acidosis after grand-mal seizures. A model for the study of an anion-gap acidosis not associated with hyperkalemia. N Engl J Med 1917;297:7969.
  • 7
    Czeizel AE, Bod M, Halasz P. Evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy in a population-based Hungarian study. Eur J Epidemiol 1992;8:1227.
  • 8
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Elveback LR, Anderson VE, Kurland LI. Congenital malformations and seizure disorders in the offspring of parents with epilepsy. Int J Epidemiol 1978;7:2417.
  • 9
    Shapiro S, Hartz SC, Siskind V, et al. Anticonvulsants and parental epilepsy in the development of birth defects. Lancet 1976; 1:2725.
  • 10
    Rosa FW. Spina bifida in infants of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1991;324:6747.
  • 11
    Lindhout D, Meinardi H, Meijer JW, Nau H. Anti-epileptic drugs and teratogenesis in two consecutive cohorts: changes in prescription policy paralleled by changes in pattern of malformations. Neurology 1992;42:94110.
  • 12
    Lindhout D, Omtzigt JG. Pregnancy and the risk of teratogenicity. Epilepsia 1992;33(suppl 4):418.
  • 13
    Janz D. Schwangerschaft und Kindesentwicklung bei Epilepsie. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 1984;44:42834.
  • 14
    Dansky LV, Finnell RH. Parental epilepsy, anticonvulsant drugs, and reproductive outcome: epidemiologic and experimental findings spanning three decades; 2: human studies. Reprod Toxicol 1991;5:30135.
  • 15
    Delgado-Escueta AV, Janz D. Consensus guidelines: preconception counseling, management, and care of the pregnant women with epilepsy. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5): 14960.
  • 16
    Lindhout D, Omtzigt JG. Teratogenic effects of anti-epileptic drugs: implications for the management of epilepsy in women of childbearing age. Epilepsia 1994;35(suppl 4): 1928.
  • 17
    Hiilesmaa VK. Pregnancy and birth in women with epilepsy. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5):811.
  • 18
    Yerby MS, Devinsky O. Epilepsy and pregnancy. Adv Neurol 1994;64:4563.
  • 19
    Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y, et al. Teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drugs: analysis of possible risk factors. Epilepsia 1988; 29:45947.
  • 20
    Bertollini R, Kallen B, Mastroiacovo P, Robert E. Anticonvulsant drugs in monotherapy. Effect on the fetus. Eur J Epidemiol 1987;3:16471.
  • 21
    Källén B, Robert E, Mastroiacovo P, Martinez-Frias ML, Castilla EE, Cocchi G. Anticonvulsant drugs and malformations. Is there a drug specificity Eur J Epidemiol 1989;5:316.
  • 22
    Holmes LB, Harvey EA, Brown KS, Kayes AM, Khoshhin S. Anticonvulsant teratogenesis: I. A study design for newborn infants. Teratology 1994;49:2027.
  • 23
    Omtzigt JG, Los FJ, Grohbee DE, et al. The risk of spina bifida aperta after first-trimester exposure to valproate in a prenatal cohort. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5): 11925.
  • 24
    Koch S, Losche G, Jager-Roman E, et al. Major and minor birth malformations and anti-epileptic drugs. Neurology 1992;42(suppl 5):838.
  • 25
    Hiilesmaa VK. A prospective study on maternal and fetal outcome in 139 women with epilepsy. Academic dissertation. University of Helsinki, 1982.
  • 26
    Gaily E, Granström ML, Hiilesmaa VK, Bardy A. Minor anomalies in offspring of epileptic mothers. J Pediatr 1988;112:5209.
  • 27
    Klepel H. Epilepsie und Schwangerschaft. Z Arztl Fortbild 1988; 82:102932.
  • 28
    Klepel H, Donat H, Koppe I. Untersuchungen zum pranatalen Wachsurn von Kindern anfallskranker Mutter. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psycho1 1986;38:5560.
  • 29
    Omtzigt JG, Los FJ, Hagenaars AM, Stewart PA, Sachs ES, Lindhout D. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida aperta after first-trimester valproate exposure. Prenat Diagn 1992;12:53937.
  • 30
    Omtzigt JG, Nau H, Los FJ, Pijpers L, Lindhout D. The disposition of valproate and its metabolites in the late first trimester and early second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum, urine, and amniotic fluid: effect of dose, co-medication, and the presence of spina bifida. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43:381388.
  • 31
    Omtzigt JG, Los FJ, Meijer JW, Lindhout D. The 10,11-epoxide-10,11-diol pathway of carbamazepine in early pregnancy in maternal serum, urine, and amniotic fluid: effect of dose, co-medication, and relation to outcome of pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit 1993;15:110.
  • 32
    Lindhout D, Hoppener RJ, Meinardi H. Teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drug combinations with special emphasis on epoxidation (of carbamazepine). Epilepsia 1984;25:7783.
  • 33
    Lindhout D, Meinardi H. Spina bifida and in-utero exposure to valproate. Lancet 1984;2:396.
  • 34
    Lindhout D. Teratogenesis in maternal epilepsy; new aspects of prevention. Academic dissertation. Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, The Netherlands , 1985.
  • 35
    Whittle BA. Pre-clinical teratological studies on sodium valproate (Epilim) and other anticonvulsants. In: LeggNJ, ed. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of sodium valproate (Epilim) in treatment of epilepsy. Kent : Turnbridge Wells, MCS Consultants, 1976:10510.
  • 36
    Brown NA, Kao J, Fahro S. Teratogenic potential of valproic acid. Lancet 1980;1:6601.
  • 37
    Gomez MR. Possible teratogenicity of valproic acid. J Pediatr 1981;98:5089.
  • 38
    Robert E, Guibaud P. Maternal valproic acid and congenital neural tube defects. Lancet 1982;2:937.
  • 39
    Mastroiacovo P, Bertollini R, Morandini S, Segni G. Maternal epilepsy, valproate exposure, and birth defects. Lancet 1983;2:1499.
  • 40
    Robert E, Rosa F. Valproate and birth defects. Lancet 1983;2:1142.
  • 41
    Lindhout D, Schmidt D. In-utero exposure to valproate and neural tube defects. Lancet 1986;1:13923.
  • 42
    Center for Disease Control. Valproate a new cause of birth defects—report from Italy and follow-up from France. MMWR 1983; 32:4389.
  • 43
    Nau H, Zierer R, Spielmann H, Neubert D, Gansau C. A new model for embryotoxicity testing: teratogenicity and pharmacokinetics of valproic acid following constant-rate administration in the mouse using human therapeutic drug and metabolite concentrations. Life Sci 1981;29:280313.
  • 44
    DiLiherti JH, Farndon PA, Dennis NR, Curry CJ. The fetal valproate syndrome. Am J Med Genet 1984;19:47381.