• 1
    Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, Alsanjari N, Stevens JM, Shorvon SD. Abnormalities of gyration, heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, microdysgenesis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and dysgenesis of the archicortex in epilepsy. Clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features in 100 adult patients. Brain 1995;118: 62960.
  • 2
    Meenke HJ, Veith G. Migration disturbances in epilepsy. In: EngelJJr, WasterlainC, CavalheiroEA, HeinemannU, AvanziniG, eds. Molecular neurobiology of epilepsy. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1992: 3140.
  • 3
    Ambrosetto G. Treatable epilepsy and unilateral opercular neuronal migration disorder. Epilepsia 1993;34: 6048.
  • 4
    Kuzniecky RI, Barkovich AJ. Pathogenesis and pathology of focal malformations of cortical development and epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol 1996; 13: 46880.
  • 5
    Taylor D, Falconer MA, Bruton CJ, Corsellis JAN, Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1971;34: 36987.
  • 6
    Palmini A, Gambardella A, Andermann F et al. Operative strategies for patients with cortical dysplasia lesion and intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35(suppl 6):5771.
  • 7
    Kuzniecky RI, Jackson GD. Temporal lobe epilepsy. In: KuznieckyRI, JacksonGD, eds. Magnetic resonance in epilepsy. New York : Raven Press, 1995: 10782.
  • 8
    Mischel PS, Nguyen LP, Vinters HV. Cerebral cortical dysplasias associated with pediatric epilepsy. Review of neuropathologic features and proposal for a grading system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1995;54: 13753.
  • 9
    Palmini A, Gambardella A, Andermann F, et al. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of human dysplastic cortex as suggested by corticography and surgical results. Ann Neurol 1995;37: 47687.
  • 10
    Prayson RA, Estes ML. Cortical dysplasia: a histopathologic study of 52 cases of partial lobectomy in patients with epilepsy. Hum Pathol 1995;26: 493500.
  • 11
    Kruskal WH, Wallis WA. Use of ranks in one-criterion analysis of variance. J Am Stat Assoc 1952;47: 583621 (errata ibid, 1953;48: 907–11.
  • 12
    Tukey JW. Comparing individual means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics 1949;5: 99114.
  • 13
    Roesner B. Fundamentals of biostatistics, 2nd ed. Boston : PWS, 1986: 47072.
  • 14
    Palmini A, Andermann F, Olivier A, Tampieri D, Robitaille Y. Focal neuronal migration disorder and intractable partial epilepsy: results of surgical treatment. Ann Neurol 1991;30: 7507.
  • 15
    Vinters HV, Fisher RS, Cornford ME, et al. Morphological substrates of infantile spasms: studies based on surgically resected cerebral tissue. Childs Nerve Syst 1992;8: 817.
  • 16
    Perot P, Weir B, Rassmussen T. Tuberous sclerosis, surgical therapies for seizures. Arch Neurol 1966;15: 498506.
  • 17
    De Rosa MJ, Secor DL, Barsom M, Fisher RS, Vinters HV. Neuropathologic findings in surgically treated hemimegalencephaly: immunohistochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural study. Acta Neuropathol 1992;84: 25060.
  • 18
    Ferrer I, Pineda M, Tallada M, et al. Abnormal local-circuit neurons in epilepsia partialis continua associated with focal cortical dysplasia. Acta Neuropathol 1992;83: 64752.
  • 19
    Ferrer I, Oliver B, Russi A, Casas R, Rivera R. Parvalbumin and calbindin-D28k immunocytochemistry in human neocortical epileptic foci. J Neurol Sci 1994;123: 1825.
  • 20
    Mattia D, Olivier A, Avioli M. Seizure-like discharges recorded in human dysplastic neocortex maintained in vitro. Neurology 1995; 45: 13915.
  • 21
    Avoli M, Hwa C, Mattia D, Olivier A, Villemure J. Microphysiology of human neocortex in vitro. In: GuerriniR, AndermannF, CanapicchiR, RogerJ, ZifkinB, PfannerP, eds. Dysplusias of the cerebral cortex and epilepsy. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven Press, 1996: 3542.
  • 22
    Pilcher WH, Silbergeld DL, Berger MS, Ojemann JA. Intraoperative electocorticography during tumor resection: impact on seizure outcome in patients with gangliogliomas. J Neurosurg 1993;78: 891902.
  • 23
    Armstrong DD. The Neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1993;52: 43343.
  • 24
    Russel DS, Rubinstein LJ. Ganglioglioma: a case with long history and malignant evolution. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1962;21: 18593.
  • 25
    Hirose T, Kannuki S, Nishida K, Matsumoto K, Sano T, Hizawa K. Anaplastic ganglioglioma of the brainstem demonstrating active neurosecretory features of neoplastic neuronal cells. Acta Neuropathol 1992;83: 36570.
  • 26
    Prayson RA, Estes ML, Moms HH. Coexistence of neoplasia and cortical dysplasia in patients presenting with seizures. Epilepsia 1993;34: 60915.
  • 27
    Haglund MM, Berger MS, Kunkel DD, Franck JE, Ghatan S, Ojemann GA. Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and somatostatin in epileptic cortex associated with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg 1992;77;20916.
  • 28
    Fried I, Kim JH, Spencer DD. Limbic and neocortical gliomas associated with intractable seizures: a distinct clinicopathologic group. Neurosurgery 1994;34: 81524.
  • 29
    Bronen RA, Vives KP, Kim JH, Fulbright RK, Spencer SS, Spencer DD. Focal cortical dysplasia of Taylor, balloon cell subtype: MR differentiation from low grade tumors. Am J Neuroradiol 1997;18: 114151.