Summary: Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and 2C19 on the metabolism of phenytoin (PHT). In addition, a population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.
Methods: The genotype of CYP2C9 (Arg144/Cys, Ile359/Leu) and CYP2C19 (*1, *2 or *3) in 134 Japanese adult patients with epilepsy treated with PHT were determined, and their serum concentrations of 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) enantiomers, being major metabolites of PHT, were measured. A population pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM analysis) was performed to evaluate whether genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9/19 affects the clinical use of PHT by using the 336 dose-serum concentration data.
Results: The mean maximal elimination rate (Vmax) was 42% lower in the heterozygote for Leu359 allele in CYP2C9, and the mean Michaelis-Menten constants (K,) in the heterozygous extensive metabolizers and the poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 were 22 and 54%, respectively, higher than those without the mutations in CYP2C9/19 genes. (R)- and (5′)-p-HPPHPHT ratios were lower in patients with mutations in CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 gene than those in patients without mutations.
Conclusions: Although the hydroxylation capacity of PHT was impaired with mutations of CYP2C9/19, the impairment was greater for CYP2C9. In view of the clinical use of PHT, two important conclusions were derived from this population study. First, the serum PHT concentration in patients with the Leu359 allele in CYP2C9 would increase dramatically even at lower daily doses. Second, the patients with CYP2C19 mutations should be treated carefully at higher daily doses of PHT.