• 1
    Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Neurology 1998;51:94448.
  • 2
    Grimes DA. Unplanned pregnancies in the U.S. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:43842.
  • 3
    Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Damey PD, Naftolin F. Use of oral contraceptives by women with epilepsy. JAMA 1986;256:23840.
  • 4
    Coulam CB, Annegers JF. Do anticonvulsants reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives Epilepsia 1979;20:51926.
  • 5
    Janz D, Schmidt D. Anti-epileptic drugs and failure of oral contraceptives [Letter]. Lancet 1974;1:1113.
  • 6
    Schmidt D, Canger R, Avanzini G, et al. Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46:7515.
  • 7
    Gjerde IO, Strandjord RE, Ulstein M. The course of epilepsy during pregnancy: a study of 78 cases. Acta Neurol Scand 1988;78:198205.
  • 8
    Tomson T, Lindbom U, Ekqvist B, Sundqvist A. Epilepsy and pregnancy: a prospective study of seizure control in relation to free and total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and phenytoin. Epilepsia 1994;35:12230.
  • 9
    Knight AH, Rhind EG. Epilepsy and pregnancy: a study of 153 pregnancies in 59 patients. Epilepsia 1975;16:99110.
  • 10
    Yerby MS, Friel PN, McCormick K. Antiepileptic drug disposition during pregnancy. Neurology 1992;42:126.
  • 11
    Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V, Bardy A, Saarikoski S. Fetal heart rate during a maternal grand ma1 epileptic seizure. J Perinat Med 1979;7:36.
  • 12
    Minkoff H, Schaffer RM, Delke I, Grunebaum A. Diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in utero after a maternal seizure. Obstet Gynecol 1985;65:22S4S.
  • 13
    Yerby MS, Leppik I. Epilepsy and the outcome of pregnancy. J Epilepsy 1990;3:1939.
  • 14
    Reynolds EH. Anticonvulsants, folic acid and epilepsy. Lancer 1973;1:13768.
  • 15
    Jordan RL, Wilson JG, Schumacher HJ. Embryotoxicity of the folate antagonist methotrexate in rats and rabbits. Teratology 1977;15:7380.
  • 16
    Dansky LV, Andermann E, Rosenblatt D, Sherwin AL, Andermann F. Anticonvulsants, folate levels, and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 1987;21:17682.
  • 17
    Ogawa Y, Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y. Serum folic acid levels in epileptic mothers and their relationship to congenital malformations. Epilepsy Res 1991;8:758.
  • 18
    Berg MJ, Stumbo PJ, Chenard CA, Fincham RW, Schneider PJ, Schottelius DD. Folic acid improves phenytoin pharmacokinetics. JAm Diet Assoc 1995;95:3526.
  • 19
    Wegner C, Nau H. Alteration of embryonic folate metabolism by valproic acid during organogenesis: implications for mechanism of teratogenesis. Neurology 1992;42(Suppl 5): 1724.
  • 20
    Robert E, Guibaud P. Maternal valproic acid and congenital neural tube defects [Letter]. Lancet 1982;11:937.
  • 21
    Lindhout D, Schmidt D. In-utero exposure to valproate and neutral tube defects. Lancer 1986;1:13923.
  • 22
    Rosa F. Spina bifida in infants of women tested with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1991;324:6747.
  • 23
    Kallen AJ. Maternal carbamazepine and infant spina bifida. Remod Toxicol 1994;8:2035.
  • 24
    Mulinare J, Corder JF, Erickson JD, et al. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA 1988;260:31415.
  • 25
    Milunsky A, Jick H, Jick SS. Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. JAMA 1988;262:284752.
  • 26
    MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancer 1991;338:1317.
  • 27
    Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first Occurrence of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med 1992;327:18325.
  • 28
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the use of folk acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. MMWR 1992;41:17.
  • 29
    Daily LE, Kirke PN, Molloy A, Weir DG, Scott JM. Folate levels and neural tube defects: implications for treatment. JAMA 1995;27:1698702.
  • 30
    Yerby MS, Cawthon L. Mortality rates in infants of mothers with epilepsy [Abstract]. Ann Neurol 1994;36:330.
  • 31
    Martin PJ, Millac PAH. Pregnancy, epilepsy, management and outcome: a 10-year perspective. Seizure 1993;2:27780.
  • 32
    Yerby M. Pregnancy, teratogenesis and epilepsy. Neurol Clin 1994;12:74971.
  • 33
    Speidel BD, Meadow SR. Maternal epilepsy and abnormalities of the fetus and newborn. Lancer 1972;308:83943.
  • 34
    Nakane Y, Okuma T, Takahashi R, et al. Multi-institutional study on the teratogenicity and fetal toxicity of antiepileptic drugs: a report of a collaborative study group in Japan. Epilepsia 1980;21:66380.
  • 35
    Lindhout D, Hoppener R, Meinardi H. Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drug combinations with special emphasis on epoxidation (of carbamazepine). Epilepsia 1984;25:7783.
  • 36
    Kelly TE, Edwards P, Rein M, Miller JQ, Dreifuss FE. Teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugs. II: A prospective trial. Am J Med Genet 1984;19:43543.
  • 37
    Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima J, et al. Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs: analysis of possible risk factors. Epilepsia 1988;29:45967.
  • 38
    Battino D, Binelli S, Caccamo ML, et al. Malformations in offspring of 305 epileptic women: a prospective study. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;85:2047.
  • 39
    Jick SS, Tenis B. Anticonvulsants and congenital malformations. Pharmacotherapy 1997;17:5614.
  • 40
    Waters CH, Belai Y, Gott PS, Shen P, Giorgio CM. Outcomes of pregnancy associated with antiepileptic drugs. Arch Neurol 1994;51:2503.
  • 41
    King PB, Lie RT, Irgens LM. Spina bifida and cleft lip among newborns of Norwegian women with epilepsy: changes related to the use of anticonvulsants. Am J Public Health 1996;86:14546.
  • 42
    Lindhout D, Meinardi H, Meijer WA, Nau H. Antipileptic drugs and teratogenesis in two consecutive cohorts: changes in prescription policy paralleled by changes in pattern of malformations. Neurology 1992;42:94110.
  • 43
    Strickler SM, Dansky LV, Miller MA, et al. Genetic predisposition to phenytoin-induced birth defects. Lancet 1985;2:7469.
  • 44
    Buehler BA, Delimont D, Van Waes M, Finnell RH. Prenatal prediction of risk of the fetal hydantoin syndrome. N Engl J Med 1990;322:156772.
  • 45
    Jones KL, Lacro RV, Johnson KA, Adams J. Pattern of malformations in the children of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1989;320:16617.
  • 46
    Nulman I, Scolnik D, Chitayat D, Farkas L, Koren G. Findings in children exposed in utero to phenytoin and carbamazepine monotherapy: independent effects of epilepsy and medications. Am J Med Genet 1997;68:1824.
  • 47
    Gaily E, Kantola-Scorsa E, Granstrom M. L. Intelligence of children of epileptic mothers. J Pediarr 1988;113:67784.
  • 48
    Scolnik D, Nulman I, Rovet J, et al. Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to phenytoin and carbamazepine monotherapy. JAMA 1994;271:76770.
  • 49
    Losche D, Steinhausen H-C, Koch S, Helge H. The psychological development of children of epileptic parents. II. The different impact of intrauterine exposure to anticonvulsant drugs and further influential factors. Acta Paediatr 1994;83:9616.
  • 50
    Mountain KR, Hirsh J, Gallus AS. Maternal coagulation defect due to anticonvulsant treatment in pregnancy. Lancet 1970;1:2658.
  • 51
    Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, et al. Increased incidence of neonatal vitamin K deficiency resulting from maternal anticonvulsant therapy. Am J Obsret Gynecol 1993;168:9238.
  • 52
    Shearer MJ, Barkhan P, Rahim S, Stimmler L. Plasma vitamin K, in mothers and their newborn babies. Lancet 1982;2:4603.
  • 53
    Sann L, Leclercq M, Troncy J, et al. Serum vitamin K, concentration and vitamin K-dependent clotting factor activity in maternal and fetal cord blood. Am J Obsret Gynecol 1985;153:7714.
  • 54
    Cornelissen M, Steegers-Theunissen R, Kollee L, et al. Supplementation of vitamin K in pregnant women receiving anticonvulsant therapy prevents neonatal vitamin K deficiency. Am J Obsret Gynecol 1993;168:8848.
  • 55
    American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Nutrition. Vitamin K compounds and their water soluble analogues: use in therapy and prophylaxis in pediatrics. Pediatrics 1961;25:5017.
  • 56
    Berg A, Shinnar S. Relapse following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs: a meta-analysis. Neurology 1994;44:6018.
  • 57
    Practice parameter: a guideline for discontinuing antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients-summary statement. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;47:602.
  • 58
    Delgado-Escueta AV, Janz D. Consensus guidelines: Preconception counseling, management and care of the pregnant woman with epilepsy. Neurology 1992;42:14960.
  • 59
    Tomson T, Lindbom U, Ekqvist B, Sundqvist A. Epilepsy and pregnancy: a prospective study of seizure control in relation to free and total plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and phenytoin.
  • 60
    Maternal serum screening. ACOG Edu Bull 1996;228:19.
  • 61
    Seizure disorders in pregnancy. ACOG Edu Bull 1996;231:170.
  • 62
    Cunningham AS, Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EFP. Breast-feeding and health in the 1980′s: a global epidemiologic review. J Pediatr 1991;118:65965.
  • 63
    Itso S, Moretti M, Liau M, Koren G. Initiation and duration of breast-feeding in women receiving antiepileptics. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:8816.
  • 64
    American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. J Pediatr 1994;93:13750.
  • 65
    Stahl MMS, Neiderud J, Vinge E. Thrombocytopenic purpura and anemia in a breast-fed infant whose mother was treated with valproic acid. J Pediatr 1997;130:10013.
  • 66
    Rambeck B, Kurlemann G, Stodieck SRG, May TW, Jurgens U. Concentrations of lamotrigine in a mother on lamotrigine treatment and her newborn child. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997;31:4814.