• 1
    Choonara IA. Giving drugs per rectum for systemic effect. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:7712.
  • 2
    Giovannitti JA, Trapp LD. Adult sedation: oral, rectal, IM, IV. Anesth Prog 1991;38:15471.
  • 3
    Graves NM, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C., Cloyd JC. Relative bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine in humans. Epilepsia 1985;26:42933.
  • 4
    Dulac O., Aicardi J., Rey E., Olive G.. Blood levels of diazepam after single rectal administration in infants and children. J Pediatr 1978;93:103941.
  • 5
    Dhillon S., Oxley J., Richens A.. Bioavailability of diazepam after intravenous, oral and rectal administration in adult epileptic patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982;13:42732.
  • 6
    Agurell S., Berlin A., Ferngren JE, Hellstrom B.. Plasma levels of diazepam after parenteral and rectal administration in children. Epilepsia 1975;16:27783.
  • 7
    Corny JA, Mitchell WG, Crumrine PK. Diastat (diazepam rectal gel) treatment of acute repetitive seizures (ARS)–a study of long-term intermittent use. Epilepsia 1996;37 (suppl 5):S154.
  • 8
    Groves L., Shellenberger K., Franklin J.. Safety and tolerability of a single dose administration of Diastat (diazepam rectal gel) to patients with epilepsy on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsia 1996;37 (suppl 5):S154.
  • 9
    Mitchell WG, Shellenberger K., Groves, L.. Rectal diazepam gel (Diastat) for acute repetitive seizures: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in children and adults with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1996;37 (suppl 5):S154.
  • 10
    Knudsen FU. Rectal administration of diazepam in solution in the acute treatment of convulsions in infants and children. Arch Dis Child 1979;54:8557.
  • 11
    Knudsen FU, Vestermark S.. Prophylactic diazepam or.phenobar-bitone in febrile convulsions: a prospective, controlled study. Arch Dis Child 1978;53:6603.
  • 12
    Knudsen FU. Effective short-term diazepam prophylaxis in febrile convulsions. J Pediatr 1985;106:48790.
  • 13
    Hoppu K., Santavouri P.. Diazepam rectal solution for home treatment of acute seizures in childhood. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981;70:36972.
  • 14
    Kriel RL, Cloyd JC, Hadsall RS, Carlson AM, Floren KL, Jones-Saete CM. Home use of rectal diazepam for cluster and prolonged seizures: efficacy, adverse reactions, quality of life and cost analysis. Pediatr Neurol 1991;7:137.
  • 15
    Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Smith E., Dooley JM. Home use of rectal diazepam to prevent status epilepticus in children with convulsive disorders. J Child Neurol 1989;4:1256.
  • 16
    Lombroso CT. Intermittent home treatment of status and clusters of seizures. Epilepsia 1989;30 (suppl 2):Sll4.
  • 17
    Remy C., Jourdil N., Villemain D., Favel P., Genton P.. Intrarectal diazepam in epileptic adults. Epilepsia 1992;33:3538.
  • 18
    Milligan N., Dhillon S., Oxley J., Richens A.. Absorption of diazepam from the rectum and its effect on interictal spikes in the EEG. Epilepsia 1982;23:32331.
  • 19
    Franzoni E., Carboni C., Lambertini A.. Rectal diazepam: a clinical and EEG study after a single dose in children. Epilepsia 1983;24:3541.
  • 20
    Milligan N., Dhillon S., Richens A., Oxley J.. Rectal diazepam in the treatment of absence status: a pharmacodynamic study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981;44:9147.
  • 21
    Elterman RD. Rectal administration of diazepam. J Child Neurol 1994;9:3401.
  • 22
    Ramsay RE, Hammond EF, Perchalski RJ, Wilder BJ. Brain uptake of phenytoin, phenobarbital and diazepam. Arch Neurol 1979;36:5359.
  • 23
    Leppik IE, Derivan AT, Homan RW, Walker J., Ramsay RE, Patrick B.. Double blind study of lorazepam and diazepam in status epilepticus. JAMA 1983;249:14524.
  • 24
    Graves NM, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C.. Bioavailability of rectally administered lorazepam. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987;10:5559.
  • 25
    Dooley JM, Tibbies JAR, Rumney PG, Dooley KC. Rectal lorazepam in the treatment of acute seizures in childhood. Ann Neurol 1985;18:4123.
  • 26
    Appleton R., Sweeney A., Choonara I., Robson J., Molyneux E.. Lorazepam versus diazepam in the acute treatment of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus. Dev Med Child Neurol 1995;37:6828.
  • 27
    Walker JE, Homan RW, Vasko MR, Crawford JL, Bell RD, Tasker WB. Lorazepam in status epilepticus. Ann Neurol 1979;6:20713.
  • 28
    Levy RJ, Krall RL. Treatment of status epilepticus with lorazepam. Arch Neurol 1984;41:60511.
  • 29
    Rylance GW, Poulton J., Cherry RC, Cullen RE. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam after single rectal administration. Arch Dis Child 1986;61:1868.
  • 30
    Woody RC, Laney MS. Rectal anticonvulsants in pediatric practice. Pediatr Emerg Care 1988;4:1126.
  • 31
    Curless RG, Holzman BH, Ramsay RE. Paraldehyde therapy in childhood status epilepticus. Arch Neurol 1983;40:47780.
  • 32
    Moolenaar F., Greuing WJ, Huizinga T.. Absorption rate and bioavailability of valproic acid and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1980;17:30915.
  • 33
    Holmes GB, Rosenfeld WE, Graves NM, Remmel RP, Carlson GH, Kriel RD. Absorption of valproic acid suppositories in human volunteers. Arch Neurol 1989;46:9069.
  • 34
    Vajda FJE. Valproic acid in the treatment of status epilepticus. Adv Neurol 1983;34:51928.
  • 35
    Thorpy MJ. Rectal valproate syrup and status epilepticus. Neurology 1980: 30: 11134.
  • 36
    Snead OC, Miles MV. Treatment of status epilepticus in children with rectal sodium valproate. J Pediatr 1985;106:3235.
  • 37
    Issakainen J., Bourgeois BF. Bioavailability of sodium valproate suppositories during repeated administration at steady state in epileptic children. Eur J Pediatr 1987;146:4047.
  • 38
    Holle LM, Gidal BE, Collins DM. Valproate in status epilepticus. Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:10424.
  • 39
    Arvidsson J., Nilsson HL, Sandstedt P., Steinwall G., Tonnby B., Flesch G.. Replacing carbamazepine slow-release tablets with carbamazepine suppositories: a pharmacokinetic and clinical study in children with epilepsy. J Child Neurol 1995;10:1147.
  • 40
    Yager JY, Seshia SS. Sublingual lorazepam in childhood serial seizures. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:9312.
  • 41
    Wallace SJ. Nasal benzodiazepines for management of acute childhood seizures? Lancet 1997;349:222.
  • 42
    O'Regan ME, Brown JR, Clarke M.. Nasal rather than rectal benzodiazepines in the management of acute childhood seizures? Dev Med Child Neurol 1996;38:103745.