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REFERENCES

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    Spencer SS. Evolving indications and applications of epilepsy surgery. Clin Neurosci 1994; 2: 39.
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    Luders HO, Awad I. Conceptual considerations. In: LudersHO, ed. Epilepsy surgery. New York : Raven Press, 1992: 5162.
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    Spencer SS, Katz A. Arriving at the surgical options for intractable seizures. Semin Neurol 1990; 10: 42230.
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    de Lanerolle NC, Kim JH, Brines ML. Cellular and molecular alterations in partial epilepsy. Clin Neurosci 1994; 2: 6481.
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    Kim J, Guimares P, Shen M, Masukawa L, Spencer D. Hippocampal neuronal density in temporal lobe epilepsy with and without gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 1990; 80: 415.
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    DeLanerolle NC, Kim JH, Robbins RJ, Spencer DD. Hippocampal interneuron loss and plasticity in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain Res 1989; 495: 38795.
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    Babb TL, Kupfer WR, Pretorius JK, Crandall PH, Levesque MF. Synaptic reorganization by mossy fibers in human epileptic fascia dentata. Neuroscience 1991; 42: 35163.
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    DeLanerolle NC, Brines M, Williamson A, Kim JH, Spencer DD. Neurotransmitters and their receptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In: RibakCE, GallCM, ModyI, eds. The dentate gyrus and its role in seizures. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1992: 23550.
  • 12
    DeLanerolle NC, Brines ML, Kim JH, Williamson A, Philips M, Spencer DD. Neurochemical remodeling of the hippocampus in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In: EngelJ, WasterlainC, CavalheiroEA, HeinemannU, AvanziniG, eds. Molecular neurobiology of epilepsy. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1992: 20520.
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    Spencer SS, Kim J, Spencer DD. Ictal spikes: a marker of specific hippocampal cell loss. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992; 83: 10411.
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    Spencer SS, Spencer DD. Entorhinal-hippocampal interactions in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994; 35: 7217.
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    Pollen DA, Trachtenberg MC. Neuroglia: gliosis and focal epilepsy. Science 1970; 167: 12523.
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    Dichter MA, Herman CJ, Selser M. Silent cells during interictal discharges and seizures in hippocampal penicillin foci: evidence for the role of extracellular K+ in the transition from the interictal state to seizures. Brain Res 1972; 48: 17383.
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    Grisar T, Franck G, Delgado-Escueta AV. Glial contribution to seizures: K+ activation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase in bulk isolated glial cells and synaptosomes of epileptogenic cortex. Brain Res 1983; 261: 7584.
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    Mennerick S, Zorumski CF. Glial contributions to excitatory neurotransmission in cultured hippocampal cells. Nature 1994; 368: 5962.
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    Nedergaard M. Direct signaling from astrocytes to neurons in cultures of mammalian brain cells. Science 1994; 263: 176871.
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    Purpura V, Basarsky TA, Liu F, Jeftinija K, Jeftinija S, Haydon PG. Glutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling. Nature 1994; 369: 7447.
  • 28
    Spencer SS, Sperling M, Shewmon A. Intracranial electrodes. In: EngelJJr, PedleyTA, eds. Epilepsy, a comprehensive textbook. New York : Lippincott-Raven, 1998: 171948.
  • 29
    O'Connor ER, Sonthermer H, Spencer DD, DeLanerolle NC. Astrocytes from human hippocampal epileptogenic foci exhibit action potential-like responses. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 34754.