• 1
    Bowman ES, Etiology and clinical course of pseudoseizures: relationship to trauma, depression, and dissociation. Psychosomatics 1993;34:33342.
  • 2
    Boon PA, Williamson PD, The diagnosis of pseudoseizures. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;95:18.
  • 3
    Shen W, Bowman ES, Markand ON, Presenting the diagnosis of pseudoseizure. Neurology 1990;40:7569.
  • 4
    Bowman ES, Markand ON, Psychodynamics and psychiatric diagnoses of pseudoseizure subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:5763.
  • 5
    Arnold LM, Privitera MD, Psychopathology and trauma in epileptic and NES seizure patients. Psychosomatics 1996;37:43843.
  • 6
    Betts T, Boden S., Diagnosis, management and prognosis of a group of 128 patients with non-epileptic attack disorder. Part II. Previous childhood sexual abuse in the aetiology of these disorders. Seizure 1992;1:2732.
  • 7
    Riggio S., NES seizures. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1994;12:100112.
  • 8
    LaBarbera J, Dozier E., Hysterical seizures: the role of sexual exploitation. Psychosomatics 1980;21:897903.
  • 9
    Alper K, Devinsky O, Perrine K, Vazquez B, Luciano D., Nonepileptic seizures and childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neurology 1993;43:19503.
  • 10
    Ramchandani D, Schindler B., Evaluation of pseudoseizures: a psychiatric perspective. Psychosomatics 1993;34:709.
  • 11
    Bowman ES, Maybury BG, Psychiatric diagnoses and abuse histories of males with nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1996;37(suppl 5):17.
  • 12
    Nash JL, Pseudoseizures: etiologic and psychotherapeutic considerations. South Med J 1993;86:124852.
  • 13
    Spiegel D, Dissociation and trauma. In: TasmanA, GoldfingerSM, eds. American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, Vol 10. Washington , DC : American Psychiatric Press, 1991:26175.
  • 14
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB, Post-traumatic stress disorder in the national comorbidity study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:104859.
  • 15
    Friedman MJ, Schnurr PP, The relationship between trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical health. In: FriedmanMJ, CharneyDS, DeutchAY, eds. Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: from normal adaptation to PTSD. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven, 1995;50724.
  • 16
    Brady KT, Posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbidity: recognizing the many faces of PTSD. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(suppl 9):125.
  • 17
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington DC : American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • 18
    Horowitz MJ, Stress response syndromes. 2nd ed. New York : Jason Aronson, 1986.
  • 19
    Herman JL, Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Traumatic Stress 1992;5:37791.
  • 20
    van der Kolk BA, The psychological consequences of overwhelming life experiences. In: van derKolkBA, ed. Psychological trauma. Washington , DC : American Psychiatric Press, 1987:130.
  • 21
    Green BL, Trauma history questionnaire. In: StammBH, ed. Measurement of stress, self-report trauma, and adaptation. Lutherville , MD : Sidran Press, 1996:3669.
  • 22
    Dutton MA, Post-traumatic therapy with domestic violence survivors. In: WilliamsMB, Sommer, JFJr, eds. Handbook of post-traumatic therapy. Westport , CT : Greenwood Press, 1994:14761.
  • 23
    Solomon SD, Davidson JR, Trauma: prevalence, impairment, service use, and cost. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(suppl 9):511.
  • 24
    Resnick HS, Kilpatrick DG, Dansky BS, Saunders BE, Best CL, Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993;61:98491.
  • 25
    Weathers FW, Litz BT, Herman DS, Huska JA, Keane TM, The PTSD checklist (PCL): reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 1993, San Antonio, TX .
  • 26
    Blanchard EB, Jones-Alexander J, Buckley TC, Forneris CA, Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behav Res Ther 1996:34:66973.
  • 27
    Blake D, Weathers FW, Nagy L, et al. Clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS). Boston : National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Behavioral Science Division Boston-VA, 1995.
  • 28
    Devinsky O., Nonepileptic psychogenic seizures: quagmires of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Epilepsia 1998;39:45862.
  • 29
    Foa EB, Meadows EA, Psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: a critical review. Annu Rev Psychol 1997;48:44980.