SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Clark LP, Prout TP. Status epilepticus: a clinical and pathological study in epilepsy. Am J Insanity 1903;60:291306.
  • 2
    Clark LP, Prout TP. Status epilepticus: a clinical and pathological study in epilepsy. Am J Insanity 1904;60:64597.
  • 3
    Clark LP, Prout TP. Status epilepticus: a clinical and pathological study in epilepsy. Am J Insanity 1904;61:81108.
  • 4
    Zimmerman HM. The histopathology of convulsive disorders in children. J Pediatr 1938;13:85990.
  • 5
    Scholz W. Die krampfschädingungen des gehirns. Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 1951.
  • 6
    Meyer A, Beck E, Shepherd M. Unusually severe lesions in the brain following status epilepticus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1955;18:2433.
  • 7
    Norman RM. The neuropathology of status epilepticus. Med Sci Law 1964;4:4651.
  • 8
    Corsellis JAN, Bruton CJ. Neuropathology of status epilepticus in humans. In: Delgado-EscuetaAV, WasterlainCG, TreimanDM, PorterRJ, eds. Status epilepticus: mechanisms of brain damage and treatment. New York : Raven Press, 1983:12939.
  • 9
    Knopman D, Margolis G, Reeves AG. Prolonged focal epilepsy and hypoxemia as a cause of focal brain damage: a case study. Ann Neurol 1977;1:1958.
  • 10
    Soffer D, Melamed E, Assaf Y, Cotev S. Hemispheric brain damage in unilateral status epilepticus. Ann Neurol 1986;20:73740.
  • 11
    DeGiorgio CM, Tomiyasu U, Gott PS, Treiman DM. Hippocampal pyramidal cell loss in human status epilepticus. Epilepsia 1992;33:237.
  • 12
    Meldrum BS, Vigouroux RA, Brierley JB. Systemic factors and epileptic brain damage: prolonged seizures in paralyzed, artificially ventilated baboons. Arch Neurol 1973;29:827.
  • 13
    Ben-Ari Y, Ottersen OP, Meldrum BS. The role of epileptic activity in hippocampal and “remote” cerebral lesions induced by kainic acid, Brain Res 1980;191:7997.
  • 14
    Schwob JE, Fuller TE, Price JL, Olney JW. Widespread patterns of neuronal damage following systemic or intracerebral injections of kainic acid: a histological study. Neuroscience 1980;5:9911014.
  • 15
    Lothman EW, Collins RC. Kainic acid induced limbic seizures: metabolic, behavioral, electroencephalographic and neuropathological correlates. Brain Res 1981;218:299318.
  • 16
    Sperk G, Lassmann H, Baran H, Kish SJ, Seitelberger F, Hornykiewicz O. Kainic acid induced seizures: neurochemical and histopathological changes. Neuroscience 1983;10:130115.
  • 17
    Turski WA, Cavalheiro EA, Schwarz M, Czuczwar SJ, Kleinrok Z, Turski L. Limbic seizures produced by pilocarpine in rats: behavioural, electroencephalographic and neuropathological study. Behav Brain Res 1983;9:31535.
  • 18
    Honchar MP, Olney JW, Sherman WR. Systemic cholinergic agents induce seizures and brain damage in lithium-treated rats. Science 1983;220:3235.
  • 19
    Clifford DB, Olney JW, Maniotis A, Collins RC, Zorumski CF. The functional anatomy and pathology of lithium-pilocarpine and high-dose pilocarpine seizures. Neuroscience 1987;23:95368.
  • 20
    Sloviter RS. Epileptic” brain damage in rats induced by sustained electrical stimulation of the perforant path. I. Acute electrophysiological and light microscopic studies. Brain Res Bull 1981;10:67597.
  • 21
    Lothman EW, Bertram EH, Bekenstein JW, Perlin JB. Self-sustaining limbic status epilepticus induced by “continuous” hippocampal stimulation: electrographic and behavioral characteristics, Epilepsy Res 1989;3:10719.
  • 22
    Teitelbaum JS, Zatorre RJ, Carpenter S, et al. Neurologic sequelae of domoic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated mussels. N Engl J Med 1990;322:17817.
  • 23
    Stafstrom CE, Tien RD, Montine TJ, Boustany R-M. Refractory status epilepticus associated with progressive magnetic resonance imaging signal change and hippocampal neuronal loss. J Epilepsy 1996;9:2538.
  • 24
    Fujikawa DG, Daniels AH, Kim JS. The competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist CGP 40116 protects against status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage. Epilepsy Res 1994;17:20719.
  • 25
    Fujikawa DG. The neuroprotective effect of ketamine administered after status epilepticus onset. Epilepsia 1995;36:18695.
  • 26
    Fujikawa DG. The temporal evolution of neuronal damage from pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Brain Res 1996;725:1122.
  • 27
    Fujikawa DG, Shinmei SS, Cai B. Lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus produces necrotic neurons with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in adult rats. Eur J Neurosci 1999;11:160514.
  • 28
    Fujikawa DG, Shinmei SS, Cai B. Kainic-acid-induced seizures produce necrotic, not apoptotic, neurons with internucleosomal DNA cleavage: implications for programmed cell death mechanisms. Neuroscience 2000;98:4153.
  • 29
    Cavazos J, Sutula T. Progressive neuronal loss induced by kindling: a possible mechanism for mossy fiber synaptic reorganization and hippocampal sclerosis. Brain Res 1990;527:16.
  • 30
    Wyllie AH. Cell death: a new classification separating apoptosis from necrosis. In: BowenID, LockshinRA, eds. Cell death in biology and pathology. London : Chapman and Hall, 1981:934.
  • 31
    Ingvar M, Morgan PF, Auer RN. The nature and timing of excitotoxic neuronal necrosis in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus due to flurothyl-induced status epilepticus. Acta Neuropathol 1988;75:3629.
  • 32
    Crosby EC, Humphrey T, Lauer EW. Correlative anatomy of the nervous system. New York : MacMillan, 1962.
  • 33
    Carpenter MB, Sutin J. Human neuroanatomy. 8th edition. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins, 1983.
  • 34
    Cavanagh JB, Meyer A. Aetiological aspects of Ammon's horn sclerosis associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. BMJ 1956;2:14037.
  • 35
    Du F, Whetsell WO Jr, Abou-Khalil B, Blumenkopf B, Lothman EW, Schwarcz R. Preferential neuronal loss in layer III of the entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1993;16:22333.
  • 36
    Bernasconi N, Bernasconi A, Andermann F, Dubeau F, Feindel W, Reutens DC. Entorhinal cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology 1999;52:18706.
  • 37
    Jones EM, Dawson A. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a case report with post-mortem brain and muscle pathology. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:10069.
  • 38
    Lannas PA, Pachar JV. A fatal case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Med Sci Law 1993;33:868.
  • 39
    Lee S, Merriam A, Kim TS, Liebling M, Dickson DW, Moore GR. Cerebellar degeneration in neuroleptic malignant syndrome: neuropathological findings and review of the literature concerning heat-related nervous system injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:38791.
  • 40
    Horn E, Lach B, Lapierre Y, Hrdina P. Hypothalamic pathology in the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:61720.
  • 41
    Klein P, Haley EC, Wooten GF, VandenBerg SR. Focal cerebral infarctions associated with perivascular tumor infiltrates in carcinomatous leptomeningeal metastases. Arch Neurol 1989;46:114952.
  • 42
    Meldrum BS, Brierley JB. Prolonged epileptic seizures in primates: ischemic cell change and its relation to ictal physiological events. Arch Neurol 1973;28:107.
  • 43
    Hampson DR, Huang X, Wells JW, Walter JA, Wright JLC. Interaction of domoic acid and several derivatives with kainic acid and AMPA binding sites in rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 1992;218:18.
  • 44
    Cendes F, Andermann F, Carpenter S, Zatorre RJ, Cashman NR. Temporal lobe epilepsy caused by domoic acid intoxication: evidence for glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in humans. Ann Neurol 1995;37:1236.
  • 45
    Cavalheiro EA, Riche DA, Le Gal La Salle G. Long-term effects of intrahippocampal kainic acid injection in rats: a method for inducing spontaneous recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1982;53:5819.
  • 46
    Mello LEAM, Cavalheiro EA, Tan AM, et al. Circuit mechanisms of seizures in the pilocarpine model of chronic epilepsy: cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Epilepsia 1993;34:98595.
  • 47
    Fariello RG, Golden GT, Smith GG, Reyes PF. Potentiation of kainic acid epileptogenicity and sparing from neuronal damage by an NMDA receptor antagonist. Epilepsy Res 1989;3:20613.
  • 48
    Clifford DB, Olney JW, Benz AM, Fuller TA, Zorumski CF. Ketamine, phencyclidine and MK–801 protect against kainic acid-induced seizure-related brain damage. Epilepsia 1990;31:38290.