• 1
    McNamara JO. Emerging insights into the genesis of epilepsy. Nature 1999;399; A1522.
  • 2
    Tauck DL, Nadler JV. Evidence of functional mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampal formation of kainic acid-treated rats. J Neurosci 1985;5:101622.
  • 3
    Cronin J, Obenaus A, Houser CR, et al. Electrophysiology of dentate granule cells after kainate-induced synaptic reorganization of mossy fibers. Brain Res 1992;573:30510.
  • 4
    Lewin GR, Barde YA. Physiology of the neurotrophins. Annu Rev Neurosci 1996;19:289317.
  • 5
    Bengzon J, Kokaia Z, Ernfors P, et al. Regulation of neurotrophin and trkA, trkB and trkC tyrosine kinase receptor messenger RNA expression in kindling. Neuroscience 1993;53:43346.
  • 6
    Yan Q, Rosenfeld RD, Matheson CR, et al. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the adult rat central nervous system. Neuroscience 1997;78:43148.
  • 7
    Gall C. Seizure-induced changes in neurotrophin expression: implications for epilepsy. Exp Neurol 1993;124:15066.
  • 8
    Kafitz KW, Rose CR, Thoenen H, et al. Neurotrophin-evoked rapid excitation through TrkB receptors. Nature 1999;401:91821.
  • 9
    Scharfman HE. Hyperexcitability in combined entorhinal/hippocampal slices of adult rat after exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurophysiol 1997;78:108295.
  • 10
    Scharfman HE, Goodman JH, Sollas AL. Actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in slices from rats with spontaneous seizures and mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus. J Neurosci 1999;19:561931.
  • 11
    Messaoudi E, Bardsen K, Srebro B, et al. Acute intrahippocampal infusion of BDNF induces lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus. J Neurophysiol 1998;79:4969.
  • 12
    Seil FJ. BDNF and NT-4, but not NT-3, promote development of inhibitory synapses in the absence of neuronal activity. Brain Res 1999;818:5614.
  • 13
    Elmer E, Kokaia Z, Kokaia M, et al. Dynamic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels in the rat forebrain after single and recurring kindling-induced seizures. Neuroscience 1998;83:35162.
  • 14
    Reibel S, Larmet Y, Carnahan J, et al. Protective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal kindling. In: CorcoranME, MosheSL, eds. Kindling V. New York : Plenum Press, 1998:40920.
  • 15
    Frush DP, Giacchino JL, McNamara JO. Evidence implicating dentate granule cells in the development of entorhinal kindling. Exp Neurol 1986;92:92101.
  • 16
    Larmet Y, Reibel S, Carnahan J, et al. Protective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the development of hippocampal kindling in the rat. Neuroreport 1995;6:193741.
  • 17
    Osehobo P, Adams B, Sazgar M, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion delays amygdala and perforant path kindling without affecting paired-pulse measures of neuronal inhibition in adult rats. Neuroscience 1999;92:136775.
  • 18
    Adams B, Sazgar M, Osehobo P, et al. Nerve growth factor accelerates seizure development, enhances mossy fiber sprouting, and attenuates seizure-induced decreases in neuronal density in the kindling model of epilepsy. J Neurosci 1997;17:528896.
  • 19
    Frank L, Wiegand SJ, Siuciak JA, et al. Effects of BDNF infusion on the regulation of TrkB protein and message in adult rat brain. Exp Neurol 1997;145:6270.
  • 20
    Kokaia M, Ernfors P, Kokaia Z, et al. Suppressed epileptogenesis in BDNF mutant mice. Exp Neurol 1995;133:21524.
  • 21
    Croll SD, Suri C, Compton DL, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor transgenic mice exhibit passive avoidance deficits, increased seizure severity and in vitro hyperexcitability in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Neuroscience 1999;93:1491506.
  • 22
    Acheson A, Conover JC, Fandl JP, et al. A BDNF autocrine loop in adult sensory neurons prevents cell death. Nature 1995;374:4503.
  • 23
    Binder DK, Routbort MJ, Ryan TE, et al. Selective inhibition of kindling development by intraventricular administration of TrkB receptor body. J Neurosci 1999;19:142436.
  • 24
    Shelton DL, Sutherland J, Gripp J, et al. Human trks: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of extracellular domain immunoadhesins. J Neurosci 1995;15:47791.
  • 25
    Croll SD, Chesnutt CR, Rudge JS, et al. Co-infusion with a TrkB-Fc receptor body carrier enhances BDNF distribution in the adult rat brain. Exp Neurol 1998;152:2033.
  • 26
    Elmer E, Kokaia M, Ernfors P, et al. Suppressed kindling epileptogenesis and perturbed BDNF and TrkB gene regulation in NT-3 mutant mice. Exp Neural 1997;145:93103.
  • 27
    Deller T, Leranth C. Synaptic connections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive neurons in the hilar area of the rat hippocampus. J Comp Neurol 1990;300:43347.
  • 28
    Vezzani A, Sperk G, Colmers WF. Neuropeptide Y: emerging evidence for a functional role in seizure modulation. Trends Neurosci 1999;22:2530.
  • 29
    Reibel S, Vivien-Roels B, Lê BT, et al. Overexpression of neuropeptide Y induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat hippocampus is long lasting. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12:595605.
  • 30
    Ip NY, Li Y, Yancopoulos GD, et al. Cultured hippocampal neurons show responses to BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4, but not NGF. J Neurosci 1993;13:3394405.
  • 31
    Croll SD, Wiegand SJ, Anderson KD, et al. Regulation of neuropeptides in adult rat forebrain by the neurotrophins BDNF and NGF. Eur J Neurosci 1994;6:134353.
  • 32
    Vezzani A, Ravizza T, Moneta D, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the limbic system of rats after acute seizures and during spontaneous convulsions: temporal evolution of changes as compared to neuropeptide Y. Neuroscience 1999;90:144561.
  • 33
    Schwarzer C, Sperk G, Samanin R, et al. Neuropeptides-immunoreactivity and their mRNA expression in kindling: functional implications for limbic epileptogenesis. Brain Res Rev 1996;22:2750.
  • 34
    Gobbi M, Gariboldi M, Piwko C, et al. Distinct changes in peptide YY binding to, and mRNA levels of, Y1 and Y2 receptors in the rat hippocampus associated with kindling epileptogenesis. J Neurochem 1998;70:161522.
  • 35
    Klapstein GJ, Colmers WF. Neuropeptide Y suppresses epileptiform activity in rat hippocampus in vitro. J Neurophysiol 1997;78:165161.
  • 36
    Baraban SC, Hollopeter G, Erickson JC, et al. Knock-out mice reveal a critical antiepileptic role for neuropeptide Y. J Neurosci 1997;17:892736.
  • 37
    Woldbye DPD, Madsen TM, Larsen PJ, et al. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes. Brain Res 1996;737:1628.
  • 38
    Woldbye DPD, Larsen PJ, Mikkelsen JD, et al. Powerful inhibition of kainic acid seizures by neuropeptide Y via Y5-like receptors. Nat Med 1997;3:7614.
  • 39
    Cavazos JE, Das I, Sutula TP. Neuronal loss induced in limbic pathways by kindling: evidence for induction of hippocampal sclerosis by repeated brief seizures. J Neurosci 1994;14:310621.
  • 40
    Tandon P, Yang Y, Das K, et al. Neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in seizures during development. Neuroscience 1999;91:293303.
  • 41
    Baimbridge KG, Miller JJ. Hippocampal calcium-binding protein during commissural kindling-induced epileptogenesis: progressive decline and effects of anticonvulsants. Brain Res 1984;324:8590.
  • 42
    Vezzani A, Hoyer D. Brain somatostatin: a candidate inhibitory role in seizures and epileptogenesis. Eur J Neurosci 1999;11:376776.
  • 43
    Nawa H, Bessho Y, Carnahan J, et al. Regulation of neuropeptide expression in cultured cerebral cortical neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurochem 1993;60:7725.
  • 44
    Bronstein JM, Farber DB, Micevych PE, et al. Kindling-induced changes in calmodulin kinase II immunoreactivity. Brain Res 1990;524:4953.
  • 45
    Blanquet PR, Lamour Y. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 activity in hippocampus. J Biol Chem 1997;272:241336.
  • 46
    de Lanerolle NC, Kim JH, Robbins RJ, et al. Hippocampal interneuron loss and plasticity in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain Res 1989;495:38795.
  • 47
    Takahashi M, Hayashi S, Kakita A, et al. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy show an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and its correlation with neuropeptide Y. Brain Res 1999;818:57982.