• 1
    Jennet B. Epilepsy after head injury and intracranial surgery. In: HopkinsA, ed. Epilepsy. London : Chapman & Hall, 1987:40112.
  • 2
    French JA, Williamson PD, Thadani VM, et al. Characteristics of medial temporal lobe epilepsy. I. Results of history and physical examination. Ann Neural 1993;34:77480.
  • 3
    Engel J. Jr. Clinical evidence for the progressive nature of epilepsy. In: HeinemannU, ed. Progressive nature of epileptogenesis. Suppl. 12. New York : Elsevier Science, 1996:920.
  • 4
    Ben-Ari Y, Tremblay E, Ottersen OP, Naquet R. Evidence suggesting secondary epileptogenic lesion after kainic acid: pretreatment with diazepam reduces distant but not local brain damage. Brain Res 1979;165:3625.
  • 5
    Mathern GW, Cifuentes F, Leite JP, Pretorius JK, Babb TL. Hippocampal EEG excitability and chronic spontaneous seizures are associated with aberrant synaptic reorganization in the rat intra-hippocampal kainate model. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;87:32639.
  • 6
    Cronin J, Dudek FE. Chronic seizures and collateral sprouting of dentate mossy fibers after kainic acid treatment in rats. Brain Res 1988;474:1814.
  • 7
    Engel JJ. Seizures and epilepsy. Philadelphia : FA David, 1989.
  • 8
    McNamara J. Cellular and molecular basis of epilepsy. J Neurosci 1994;14:341325.
  • 9
    Mody I, Stanley K. Cell properties in the epileptic hippocampus. Hippocampus 1994;4:27580.
  • 10
    Schwartzkroin PA, Buckmaster PS, Strowbridge BW, Kunkel DD, Owens J Jr, Pokorny J. Possible mechanisms of seizure-related cell damage in the dentate hilus. Epilepsy Res Suppl 1996;12:31724.
  • 11
    Cavalheiro EA, Riche DA, la Gal La Salle G. Long-term effects of intrahippocampal kainic acid injection in rats: a method for inducing spontaneous recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1982;53:5819.
  • 12
    Babb TL, Pereira-Leite J, Mathern GW, Pretorius JK. Kainic acid induced hippocampal seizures in rats: comparisons of acute and chronic seizures using intrahippocampal versus systemic injections. Ital J Neurol Sci 1995;16:3944.
  • 13
    Bragin A, Engel J Jr, Wilson CL, Fried I, Mathern GW. Hippocampal and entorhinal cortex high-frequency oscillations (100–500 Hz) in human epileptic brain and in kainic acid–treated rats with chronic seizures. Epilepsia 1999;40:12737.
  • 14
    Bragin A, Engel J Jr, Wilson CL, Vizentin E, Mathern GW. Electrophysiologic analysis of a chronic seizure model after unilateral hippocampal KA injection. Epilepsia 1999;40:121021.
  • 15
    Bragin A, Engel J Jr, Wilson CL, Fried I, Buzsaki G. High-frequency oscillations in human brain. Hippocampus 1999;9:13742.
  • 16
    Babb TL. Research on the anatomy and pathology of epileptic tissue. In: LuderH, ed. Epilepsy surgery. New York : Raven Press, 1991:71927.
  • 17
    Mathern G, Pretorius J, Babb T. Quantified patterns of mossy fiber sprouting and neuron densities in hippocampal and lesional seizures. J Neurosurg 1995;82:2119.
  • 18
    Babb TL, Pretorius JK, Kupfer WR, Mathern GW, Crandall PH, Levesque MF. Aberrant synaptic reorganization in human epileptic hippocampus: evidence for feedforward excitation. Dendron 1992;1:725.
  • 19
    MacVicar B, Dudek F. Electronic coupling between granule cells of rat dentate gyrus: physiological and anatomical evidence. J Neurophysiol 1982;47:57992.
  • 20
    Traub RD, Schmitz D, Jefferys JG, Draguhn A. High-frequency population oscillations are predicted to occur in hippocampal pyramidal neuronal networks interconnected by axoaxonal gap junctions. Neuroscience 1999;92:40726.
  • 21
    Prince DA. Epilepsy and the too-well-connected brain. Nat Med 1997;3:9578.
  • 22
    Schwartzkroin PA. Local circuit considerations and intrinsic neuronal properties involved in hyperexcitability and cell synchronization. In: Basic mechanisms of neuronal hyperexcitability. New York : Alan R Liss, 1983:75108.
  • 23
    Traub RD, Pedley TA. Virus-induced electrotonic coupling: hypothesis on the mechanism of periodic EEG discharges in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol 1981;10:40510.
  • 24
    Ward AA. Jr. The epileptic neurone. Epilepsia 1961;1:7080.
  • 25
    Dudek FE, Snow RW, Taylor CP. Role of electrical interactions in synchronization of epileptiform bursts. Adv Neurol 1986;44:593617.
  • 26
    Jefferys JG, Haas HL. Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic transmission. Nature 1982;300:44850.
  • 27
    Prince DA. Physiological mechanisms of focal epileptogenesis. Epilepsia 1985;26:S314.
  • 28
    Tauck DL, Nadler JV. Evidence of functional mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampal formation of kainic acid-treated rats. J Neurosci 1985;5:101622.
  • 29
    Schwartzkroin PA. General introduction. In: SchwartzkroinPA, ed. Epilepsy: models, mechanisms, and concepts. Cambridge , UK : Cambridge University Press, 1993:119.
  • 30
    Mathern GW, Babb TL, Vickrey BG, Melendez M, Pretorius JK. The clinical-pathogenic mechanisms of hippocampal neuron loss and surgical outcomes in temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 1995;118:10518.
  • 31
    Dudek FE, Spitz M. Hypothetical mechanisms for the cellular and neurophysiologic basis of secondary epileptogenesis: proposed role of synaptic reorganization. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14:90101.
  • 32
    Sutula T, He XX, Cavazos J, Scott G. Synaptic reorganization in the hippocampus induced by abnormal functional activity. Science 1988;239:114750.
  • 33
    Sutula T, Cascino G, Cavazos J, Parada I, Ramirez L. Mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the epileptic human temporal lobe. Ann Neurol 1989;26:32130.
  • 34
    Babb TL, Pretorius JK, Mello LE, Mathern GW, Levesque MF. Synaptic reorganizations in epileptic human and rat kainate hippocampus may contribute to feedback and feedforward excitation. Epilepsy Res Suppl 1992;9:193202.
  • 35
    Davenport CJ, Brown WJ, Babb TL. Sprouting of GABAergic and mossy fiber axons in dentate gyrus following intrahippocampal kainate in the rat. Exp Neurol 1990;109:18090.
  • 36
    Buckmaster PS, Tam E, Schwartzkroin PA. Electrophysiological correlates of seizure sensitivity in the dentate gyrus of epileptic juvenile and adult gerbils. J Neurophysiol 1996;76:216980.
  • 37
    Prince DA, Futamachi KJ. Intracellular recordings from chronic epileptogenic foci in the monkey. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1970;29:496510.
  • 38
    Buckmaster PS, Dudek FE. Network properties of the dentate gyrus in epileptic rats with hilar neuron loss and granule cell axon reorganization. J Neurophysiol 1997;77:268596.
  • 39
    Buckmaster PS, Dudek FE. In vivo intracellular analysis of granule cell axon reorganization in epileptic rats. J Neurophysiol 1999;81:71221.
  • 40
    Franck JE, Schwartzkroin PA. Do kainate-lesioned hippocampi become epileptogenic Brain Res 1985;329:30913.
  • 41
    Hoffman SN, Salin PA, Prince DA. Chronic neocortical epileptogenesis in vitro. J Neurophysiol 1994;71:176273.
  • 42
    Masukawa LM, Higashima M, Kim JH, Spencer DD. Epileptiform discharges evoked in hippocampal brain slices from epileptic patients. Brain Res 1989;493:16874.
  • 43
    Prince DA, Tseng GF. Epileptogenesis in chronically injured cortex: in vitro studies. J Neurophysiol 1993;69:127691.
  • 44
    Prince DA, Jacobs KM, Salin PA, Hoffman S, Parada I. Chronic focal neocortical epileptogenesis: does disinhibition play a role Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1997;75:5007.
  • 45
    Mody I, Otis TS, Staley KJ, Kohr G. The balance between excitation and inhibition in dentate granule cells and its role in epilepsy. Epilepsy Res Suppl 1992;9:3319.
  • 46
    Mody I. Interneurons and the ghost of the sea. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:4346.
  • 47
    Khazipov R, Leinekugel X, Khalilov I, Gaiarsa JL, Ben-Ari Y. Synchronization of GABAergic interneuronal network in CA3 sub-field of neonatal rat hippocampal slices. J Physiol (Lond) 1997;498:76372.
  • 48
    Menendez de la Prida L, Bolea S, Sanchez-Andres JV. Origin of the synchronized network activity in the rabbit developing hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10:899906.
  • 49
    Strata F, Atzori M, Molnar M, Ugolini G, Tempia F, Cherubini E. A pacemaker current in dye-coupled hilar interneurons contributes to the generation of giant GABAergic potentials in developing hippocampus. J Neurosci 1997;17:143546.
  • 50
    Lippe WR. Relationship between frequency of spontaneous bursting and tonotopic position in the developing avian auditory system. Brain Res 1995;703:20513.
  • 51
    Kandler K, Katz LC. Neuronal coupling and uncoupling in the developing nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1995;5:98105.
  • 52
    Magloczky Z, Freund TF. Selective neuronal death in the contra-lateral hippocampus following unilateral kainate injections into the CA3 subfield. Neuroscience 1993;56:31735.
  • 53
    Nakajima S, Frank J, Bilkey D, Schwartzkroin P. Local circuit synaptic interactions between CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons in the kainate-lesioned hyperexcitable hippocampus. Hippocampus 1991;1:6778.
  • 54
    Lothman EW, Bertram EHI, Stringer JL. Functional anatomy of hippocampal seizures. Prog Neurobiol 1991;37:182.
  • 55
    Morrell F. Secondary epileptogenic lesions. Epilepsia 1960;1:53860.