• 1
    First Seizure Trial Group (FIR.S.T. Group). Randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing the risk of relapse after a first unprovoked tonic- clonic seizure. Neurology 1993;43: 47883.
  • 2
    King MA, Newton MR, Jackson GD, et al. Epileptology of the first-seizure presentation: a clinical, electroencephalographic, and magnetic imaging study of 300 consecutive patients. Lancet 1998;352: 100711.
  • 3
    Hirtz D, Ashwal S, Berg A, et al. Practice parameter: evaluating a first nonfebrile seizure in children: report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, The Child Neurology Society, and The American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 2000;55: 61623.
  • 4
    Gibbs FA, Davis H, Lennox WG. The electroencephalogram in epilepsy and in conditions of impaired consciousness. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 1935;34: 113348.
  • 5
    Gibbs FA, Gibbs EL, Lennox WG. Epilepsy: a paroxysmal cortical dysrhythmia. Brain 1937;60: 37788.
  • 6
    Penfield W, Jasper HH. Epilepsy and the functional anatomy of the human brain. Boston : Little, Brown & Co., 1954.
  • 7
    Gloor P. Generalized cortico-reticular epilepsies. Some considerations on the pathophysiology of generalized bilaterally synchronous spike and wave discharge. Epilepsia 1968;9: 24963.
  • 8
    Chauvel P, Kliemann F, Vignal JP, et al. The clinical signs and symptoms of frontal lobe seizures. Phenomenology and classification. Adv Neurol 1995;66: 11525.
  • 9
    Marcus EM, Watson CW, Simon SA. An experimental model of some varieties of petit mal epilepsy. Electrical-behavioral correlations of acute bilateral epileptogenic foci in cerebral cortex. Epilepsia 1968;9: 23348.
  • 10
    Avoli M, Kostopoulos G. Participation of corticothalamic cells in penicillin-induced generalized spike and wave discharges. Brain Res 1982;247: 15963.
  • 11
    Aliberti V, Grunewald RA, Panayiotopoulos CP, et al. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 297301.
  • 12
    Lombroso CT. Consistent EEG focalities detected in subjects with primary generalized epilepsies monitored for two decades. Epilepsia 1997;38: 797812.
  • 13
    Lancman ME, Asconape JJ, Golimstok A. Circling seizures in a case of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 3178.
  • 14
    Lancman ME, Asconape JJ, Penry JK. Clinical and EEG asymmetries in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 3026.
  • 15
    Aguglia U, Gambardella A, Le Piane E, et al. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with versive or circling seizures. Acta Neurol Scand 1999;99: 21924.
  • 16
    Kiley MA, Smith SJ, Sander JW. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy presenting with hemiconvulsive seizures. Epilepsia 2000;41: 16336.
  • 17
    So EL, King DW, Murvin AJ. Misdiagnosis of complex absence seizures. Arch Neurol 1984;41: 6401.
  • 18
    Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1981;22: 489501.
  • 19
    Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 1989;30: 38999.
  • 20
    Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, et al. Abnormalities of gyration, heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, microdysgenesis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and dysgenesis of the archicortex in epilepsy. Clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features in 100 adult patients. Brain 1995;118: 62960.
  • 21
    Giza CC, Kuratani JD, Cokely H, et al. Periventricular nodular heterotopia and childhood absence epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 1999;20: 3158.
  • 22
    Li LM, Donoghue MF, Smith SJM. Outcome of epilepsy surgery in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with 3-4Hz generalized spike and wave discharges. J Epilepsy 1996;9: 2104.
  • 23
    Koutroumanidis M, Hennessy MJ, Elwes RD, et al. Coexistence of temporal lobe and idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Neurology 1999;53: 4905.
  • 24
    Binnie CD. Regional manifestation of idiopathic epilepsy. An electrophysiological view. In: WolfP, ed. Epileptic seizures and syndromes. London : John Libbey and Co, 1994: 2701.
  • 25
    Delgado-Escueta AV, Greenberg D, Weissbecker K, et al. Gene mapping in the idiopathic generalized epilepsies: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, epilepsy with grand mal seizures, and early childhood myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1990;31(suppl 3):S1929.
  • 26
    Penry JK, Porter RJ, Dreifuss RE. Simultaneous recording of absence seizures with video tape and electroencephalography. A study of 374 seizures in 48 patients. Brain 1975;98: 42740.
  • 27
    Stefan H, Burr W, Hinderbrand D, et al. In: KazamatsuriH, SeinoM, WardAA, eds. Advances in epileptology: the 13th Epilepsy International Symposium. New York : Raven Press, 1982: 198255.
  • 28
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Obeid T, Waheed G. Differentiation of typical absence seizures in epileptic syndromes. A video EEG study of 224 seizures in 20 patients. Brain 1989;112: 103956.
  • 29
    Agathonikou A, Panayiotopoulos CP, Giannakodimos S, et al. Typical absence status in adults: diagnostic and syndromic considerations. Epilepsia 1998;39: 126576.
  • 30
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Chroni E, Daskalopoulos C, et al. Typical absence seizures in adults: clinical, EEG, video-EEG findings and diagnostic/syndromic considerations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55: 10028.
  • 31
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Koutroumanidis M, Giannakodimos S, et al. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy in adults manifested by phantom absences, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and frequent absence status. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63: 6227.
  • 32
    Michelucci R, Rubboli G, Passarelli D, et al. Electroclinical features of idiopathic generalized epilepsy with persisting absences in adult life. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996;61: 4717.
  • 33
    Marini C, King MA, Archer JS, et al. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy of adult onset: clinical syndromes and genetics. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74: 1926.
  • 34
    Cutting S, Lauchheimer A, Barr W, et al. Adult-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy: clinical and behavioral features. Epilepsia 2001;42: 13958.
  • 35
    Koutroumanidis M, Panayiotopoulos CP. Reflex seizures and reflex epilepsies. In: WallaceSJ, FarrellK, eds. Epilepsy in children. London : Arnold , 2004: 2004243.
  • 36
    Wilkins AJ, Darby CE, Binnie CD. Neurophysiological aspects of pattern-sensitive epilepsy. Brain 1979;102: 125.
  • 37
    Ferrie CD, De Marco P, Grunewald RA, et al. Video game induced seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57: 92531.
  • 38
    Wilkins AJ, Zifkin B, Andermann F, et al. Seizures induced by thinking. Ann Neurol 1982;11: 60812.
  • 39
    Goossens LA, Andermann F, Andermann E, et al. Reflex seizures induced by calculation, card or board games, and spatial tasks: a review of 25 patients and delineation of the epileptic syndrome. Neurology 1990;40: 11716.
  • 40
    Wolf P. Reading epilepsy. In: RogerJ, BureauM, DravetC, et al., eds. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. London : John Libbey & Company, 1992: 1992281.
  • 41
    Radhakrishnan K, Silbert PL, Klass DW. Reading epilepsy. An appraisal of 20 patients diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between 1949 and 1989, and delineation of the epileptic syndrome. Brain 1995;118: 7589.
  • 42
    Koutroumanidis M, Koepp MJ, Richardson MP, et al. The variants of reading epilepsy. A clinical and video-EEG study of 17 patients with reading-induced seizures. Brain 1998;121: 140927.
  • 43
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Jeavons PM, Harding GF. Occipital spikes and their relation to visual responses in epilepsy, with particular reference to photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1972;32: 17990.
  • 44
    Wilkins AJ, Andermann F, Ives J. Stripes, complex cells and seizures. An attempt to determine the locus and nature of the trigger mechanism in pattern-sensitive epilepsy. Brain 1975;98: 36580.
  • 45
    Binnie CD, Wilkins AJ, De Korte RA. Interhemispheric differences in photosensitive epilepsy. II. Intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1981;52: 46972.
  • 46
    Ramani V. Reading epilepsy. Adv Neurol 1998;75: 24162.
  • 47
    Jeavons PM, Harding GF, Panayiotopoulos CP, et al. The effect of geometric patterns combined with intermittent photic stimulation in photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1972;33: 2214.
  • 48
    Gowers WR. Epilepsies and other chronic convulsive diseases. Their causes, symptoms and treatment. London : Churchill JA , 1881.
  • 49
    Janz D. ‘Aufwach’-epilepsien (als ausdruckeinerden ‘nacht’-oder ‘schlaf’-epilepsien gegenuberzustellenden verlaufsform epileptischer erkrankungen). Arch Z Neurol 1953;7398.
  • 50
    Janz D. Epilepsy with grand mal on awakening and sleep-waking cycle. Clin Neurophysiol 2000;111(suppl 2):S10310.
  • 51
    Niedermeyer E. Concerning the release mechanism of seizure potentials in central encephalytic epilepsy. [German]. Nervenarzt 1967;38: 724.
  • 52
    Terzano MG, Mancia D, Salati MR, et al. The cyclic alternating pattern as a physiologic component of normal NREM sleep. Sleep 1985;8: 13745.
  • 53
    Terzano MG, Parrino L, Anelli S, et al. Modulation of generalized spike-and-wave discharges during sleep by cyclic alternating pattern. Epilepsia 1989;30: 77281.
  • 54
    Gigli GL, Calia E, Marciani MG, et al. Sleep microstructure and EEG epileptiform activity in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1992;33: 799804.
  • 55
    Fountain NB, Kim JS, Lee SI. Sleep deprivation activates epileptiform discharges independent of the activating effects of sleep. J Clin Neurophysiol 1998;15: 6975.
  • 56
    Halasz P, Filakovszky J, Vargha A, et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on spike-wave discharges in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a 4 x 24 h continuous long term EEG monitoring study. Epilepsy Res 2002;51: 12332.
  • 57
    Nicolaides P, Appleton RE, Beirne M. EEG requests in paediatrics: an audit. Arch Dis Child 1995;72: 5223.
  • 58
    Fowle AJ, Binnie CD. Uses and abuses of the EEG in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41(suppl 3):S108.
  • 59
    Genton P. When antiepileptic drugs aggravate epilepsy. Brain Dev 2000;22: 7580.
  • 60
    Lennox WG, Lennox MA. Epilepsy and related disorders. Boston : Little, Brown & Co., 1960.
  • 61
    Hirsch E, Marescaux C. What are the relevant criteria for a better classification of epileptic syndromes with typical absences? In: MalafosseA, GentonP, HirschE, et al., eds. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies. London : John Libbey & Company Ltd, 1994: 199487.
  • 62
    Loiseau P, Duche B. Childhood absence epilepsy. In: DuncanJS, PanayiotopoulossCP, eds. Typical absences and related epileptic syndromes. London : Churchill Communications Europe , 1995: 1995152.
  • 63
    Cobb WA, Gordon N, Matthews SC, et al. The occipital delta rhythm in petit mal. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1961;13: 1423.
  • 64
    Wolf P, Inoue Y. Therapeutic response of absence seizures in patients of an epilepsy clinic for adolescents and adults. J Neurol 1984;231: 2259.
  • 65
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Ferrie CD, Koutroumanidis M, et al. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy with phantom absences and absence status in a child. Epileptic Disord 2001;3: 636.
  • 66
    Wolf P, Inoue Y. Complex reflex epilepsies: reading epilepsy and praxis induction. In: RogerJ, BureauM, DravetC, et al., eds. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Eastleigh , UK : John Libbey & Co Ltd, 2004: 2004315.
  • 67
    Dravet C, Bureau M. Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. In: RogerJ, BureauM, DravetC, et al, eds. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. 3rd ed. London : John Libbey & Co Ltd, 2002: 200269.
  • 68
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Agathonikou A, Koutroumanidis M, et al. Eyelid myoclonia with absences: the symptoms. In:DuncanJS, PanayiotopoulosCP, eds. Eyelid myoclonia with absences. London : John Libbey & Company Ltd, 1996: 199617.
  • 69
    Appleton RE, Panayiotopoulos CP, Acomb BA, et al. Eyelid myoclonia with typical absences: an epilepsy syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993;56: 13126.
  • 70
    Giannakodimos S, Panayiotopoulos CP. Eyelid myoclonia with absences in adults: a clinical and video- EEG study. Epilepsia 1996;37: 3644.
  • 71
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Giannakodimos S, Agathonikou A, et al. Eyelid myoclonia is not a manoeuvre for self-induced seizures in eyelid myoclonia with absences. In: DuncanJS, PanayiotopoulosCP, eds.Eyelid myoclonia with absences. London : John Libbey & Company Ltd, 1996: 199693.
  • 72
    Binnie CD. Differential diagnosis of eyelid myoclonia with absences and self-induction by eye closure. In: DuncanJS, PanayiotopoulosCP, eds. Eyelid myoclonia with absences. London : John Libbey & Company Ltd, 1996: 8992.
  • 73
    Ames FR. “Self-induction” in photosensitive epilepsy. Brain 1971;94: 78198.
  • 74
    Andermann K, Berman S, Cooke PM, et al. Self-induced epilepsy. A collection of self-induced epilepsy cases compared with some other photoconvulsive cases. Arch Neurol 1962;6: 4965.
  • 75
    Binnie CD, Darby CE, De Korte RA, et al. Self-induction of epileptic seizures by eye closure: incidence and recognition. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43: 3869.
  • 76
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Ferrie CD, Giannakodimos S, et al. Perioral myoclonia with absences: a new syndrome. In: WolfP, ed. Epileptic seizures and syndromes. London : John Libbey & Company Ltd, 1994: 14353.
  • 77
    Bureau M, Tassinari AC. The syndrome of myoclonic absences. In: RogerJ, BureauM, DravetC, et al., eds. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence. 3rd ed. Eastleigh , UK : John Libbey & Co, Ltd, 2002: 30512.
  • 78
    Christian W. Bioelectrical characteristics of daily periodic forms of the course of epileptic diseases. Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd 1960;181: 41344.
  • 79
    Christian W. The sleeping-waking period in sleeping-waking epilepsy. Nervenarzt 1961;32: 26675.
  • 80
    Ajmone MC, Lewis WR. Pathologic findings in patients with “centrencephalic” electroencephalographic patterns. Neuropsihijatrija 1960;10: 92230.
  • 81
    Tukel K, Jasper H. The electroencephalogram in parasagittal lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl 1952;4: 48194.
  • 82
    Klass DW. Electroencephalographic manifestations of complex partial seizures. Adv Neurol 1975;11: 11340.
  • 83
    Blume WT, Pillay N. Electrographic and clinical correlates of secondary bilateral synchrony. Epilepsia 1985;26: 63641.
  • 84
    Ajmone-Marsan C, Lewis WR. Pathologic findings in patients with “centroencephalic” electroencephalographic patterns. Neurology 1960;10: 92230.
  • 85
    Daly DD. Epilepsy and syncope. Secondary bilateral synchrony. In: DalyDD, PedleyTA, eds. Current practice of clinical electroencephalography. 2nd ed.. Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott-Raven, 1997: 3101.
  • 86
    Kellaway P. An orderly approach to visual analysis: characteristics of the normal EEG of adults and children. In: DaleyDD, PedleyTA, eds. Clinical practice of clinical electroencephalography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott-Raven, 1997: 13999.
  • 87
    Epstein MA, Duchowny M, Jayakar P. Altered responsiveness during hyperventilation-induced EEG slowing: a non-epileptic phenomenon in normal children. Epilepsia 1994;35: 12047.
  • 88
    Lee SI, Kirby D. Absence seizure with generalized rhythmic delta activity. Epilepsia 1988;29: 2627.
  • 89
    Engel GL, Ferris EB, Logan M. Hyperventilation: analysis of clinical symptomatology. Ann Intern Med 1947;27: 683704.
  • 90
    Lum LM, Connolly MB, Farrell K, et al. Hyperventilation - induced high-amplitude rhythmic slowing with altered consciousness: a video-EEG comparison with absence seizures. Epilepsia 2002;43: 13728.
  • 91
    Loiseau P, Pestre M, Dartigues JF, et al. Long-term prognosis in two forms of childhood epilepsy: typical absence seizures and epilepsy with rolandic (centrotemporal) EEG foci. Ann Neurol 1983;13: 6428.
  • 92
    Sato S, Dreifuss FE, Penry JK. Prognostic factors in absence seizures. Neurology 1976;26: 78896.
  • 93
    Hedstrom A, Olsson I. Epidemiology of absence epilepsy: EEG findings and their predictive value. Pediatr Neurol 1991;7: 1004.
  • 94
    Covanis A, Skiadas K, Loli N, et al. Absence epilepsy: early prognostic signs. Seizure 1992;1: 2819.
  • 95
    Duncan JS. Antiepileptic drugs and the electroencephalogram. Epilepsia 1987;28: 25966.
  • 96
    Appleton RE, Beirne M. Absence epilepsy in children: the role of EEG in monitoring response to treatment. Seizure 1996;5: 1478.
  • 97
    Koutroumanidis M, Martin-Miguel C, Hennessy MJ, et al. Interictal temporal delta activity in temporal lobe epilepsy: correlations with pathology and outcome. Epilepsia 2004;45: 135167.