• 1
    Tausk M. Androgens and anabolic steroids. In: ParnhamMJ, BruinvelsJ, eds. Discoveries in pharmacology; haemodynamics, hormones and inflammation. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1984: 30720.
  • 2
    Kochakian CD. History, chemistry and pharmacodynamics of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Wien Med Wochenschr 1993;143: 35963.
  • 3
    Brunet M, Rodamilans M, Martinez-Osaba MJ, et al. Effects of long-term antiepileptic therapy on the catabolism of testosterone. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995;76: 3715.
  • 4
    Schänzer W. Metabolism of anabolic androgenic steroids. Clin Chem 1996;42: 100120.
  • 5
    Vierhapper H, Nowotny P. The stress of being a doctor: steroid excretion rates in internal medicine residents on and off duty. Am J Med 2000;109: 4924.DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00578-7
  • 6
    Charbonneau A, The VL. Genomic organization of a human 5β-reductase and its pseudogene and substrate selectivity of the expressed enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1517: 22835.
  • 7
    Slaunwhite WR Jr, Sandberg AA. Metabolism of 4-C14-testosterone in human subjects, III: fate of androsterone and etiocholanolone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1958;18: 105666.
  • 8
    Rittmaster RS, Leopold CA, Thompson DL. Androgen glucuronyl transferase activity in rat liver, evidence for the importance of hepatic tissue in 5α-reduced androgen metabolism. J Steroid Biochem 1989;33: 120712.DOI: 10.1016/0022-4731(89)90431-7
  • 9
    Callies F, Arlt W, Siekmann L, Hubler D, et al. Influence of oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on urinary steroid metabolites in males and females. Steroids 2000;65: 98102.
  • 10
    Poór V, Juricskay S, Gáti A, et al. Urinary steroid metabolites and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in patients with unipolar recurrent major depression. J Affect Disord 2004;81: 559.DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00199-X
  • 11
    Kokate TG, Svensson BE, Rogawski MA. Anticonvulsant activity of neurosteroids: correlation with γ-aminobutyric acid-evoked chloride current potentiation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994;270: 12239.
  • 12
    Reddy DS, Rogawski MA. Stress-induced deoxycorticosterone-derived neurosteroids modulate GABAA receptor function and seizure susceptibility. J Neurosci 2002;22: 3795805.
  • 13
    Morrow AL, Pace JR, Purdy RH, et al. Characterization of steroid interactions with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-gated chloride ion channels: evidence for multiple steroid recognition sites. Mol Pharmacol 1990;37: 26370.
  • 14
    Turner DM, Ransom RW, Yang JS, et al. Steroid anesthetics and naturally occurring analogs modulate the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor complex at a site distinct from barbiturates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1989;248: 9606.
  • 15
    Hawkinson JE, Kimbrough CL, Belelli D, et al. Correlation of neuroactive steroid modulation of [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate and [3H]flunitrazepam binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor function. Mol Pharmacol 1994;46: 97785.
  • 16
    Turner JP, Simmonds MA. Modulation of the GABAA receptor complex by steroids in slices of rat cuneate nucleus. Br J Pharmacol 1989;96: 40917.
  • 17
    Twyman RE, Macdonald RL. Neurosteroid regulation of GABAA receptor single-channel kinetic properties of mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. J Physiol 1992;456: 21545.
  • 18
    Peters JA, Kirkness EF, Callachan H, et al. Modulation of the GABAA receptor by depressant barbiturates and pregnane steroids. Br J Pharmacol 1988;94: 125769.
  • 19
    Park-Chung M, Malayev A, Purdy RH, et al. Sulfated and unsulfated steroids modulate γ-aminobutyric acid receptor A function through distinct sites. Brain Res 1999;830: 7287.DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01381-5
  • 20
    Belelli D, Bolger MB, Gee KW. Anticonvulsant profile of the progesterone metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one. Eur J Pharmacol 1989;166: 3259.
  • 21
    Kokate TG, Cohen AL, Karp E, et al. Neuroactive steroids protect against pilocarpine- and kainic acid–induced limbic seizures and status epilepticus in mice. Neuropharmacology 1996;35: 104956.DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3908(96)00021-4
  • 22
    Frye CA, Scalise TJ. Anti-seizure effects of progesterone and 3α,5α-THP in kainic acid and perforant pathway models of epilepsy. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000;25: 40720.DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4530(99)00068-2
  • 23
    Kaminski RM, Livingood MR, Rogawski MA. Allopregnanolone analogs that positively modulate GABAA receptors protect against partial seizures induced by 6 Hz electrical stimulation in mice. Epilepsia 2004;45: 14.
  • 24
    Salazar P, Tapia R, Rogawski MA. Effects of neurosteroids on epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine in the rat hippocampal slice. Epilepsy Res 2003;55: 7182.DOI: 10.1016/S0920-1211(03)00112-8
  • 25
    Kubli-Garfias C, Canchola E, Arauz-Contreras J, et al. Depressant effect of androgens on the cat brain electrical activity and its antagonism by ruthenium red. Neuroscience 1982;7: 277782.DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(82)90100-2
  • 26
    Naum G, Cardozo J, Golombek DA. Diurnal variation in the proconvulsant effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid and the anticonvulsant effect of androsterone in the Syrian hamster. Life Sci 2002;71: 918.DOI: 10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01577-1
  • 27
    Rogawski MA, Reddy DS. Neurosteroids: endogenous modulators of seizure susceptibility. In: RhoJM, SankarR, CavazosJ, eds. Epilepsy: scientific foundations of clinical practice. New York : Marcel Dekker, 2004: 31955.
  • 28
    Herzog AG, Seibel MM, Schomer DL, et al. Reproductive endocrine disorders in men with partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Arch Neurol 1986;43: 34750.
  • 29
    Bauer J, Blumenthal S, Reuber M, et al. Epilepsy syndrome, focus location, and treatment choice affect testicular function in men with epilepsy. Neurology 2004;62: 2436.
  • 30
    Connell JM, Rapeport WG, Beastall GH, et al. Changes in circulating androgens during short term carbamazepine therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984;17: 34751.
  • 31
    Edwards HE, MacLusky NJ, Burnham WM. The effect of seizures and kindling on reproductive hormones in the rat. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000;24: 75362.DOI: 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00034-8
  • 32
    Herzog AG, Drislane FW, Schomer DL, et al. Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on sexual function and reproductive hormones in men with epilepsy: interim analysis of a comparison between lamotrigine and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 2004;45: 7648.DOI: 10.1111/j.0013-9580.2004.60703.x
  • 33
    Christiansen P, Lund M. Sexual potency, testicular function and excretion of sexual hormones in male epileptics. In: DieterJ, ed., with contributions by P.Ahlgren, et al. Epileptology: proceedings of the seventh International Symposium on Epilepsy. Berlin (West) 1975: 1901.
  • 34
    Yamaguchi S, Rogawski MA. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs on 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Epilepsy Res 1992;11: 916.DOI: 10.1016/0920-1211(92)90016-M
  • 35
    Stoffel-Wagner B, Bauer J, Flügel D, et al. Serum sex hormones are altered in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy receiving anticonvulsant medication. Epilepsia 1998;39: 116473.
  • 36
    Bauer J, Stoffel-Wagner B, Flugel D, et al. Serum androgens return to normal after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in men. Neurology 2000;55: 8204.
  • 37
    Nussey SS, Whitehead SA. Endocrinology: an integrated approach. Oxford , UK : Bios Scientific Publishers, 2001.
  • 38
    Hammond GL, Ruokonen A, Kontturi M, et al. The simultaneous radioimmunoassay of seven steroids in human spermatic and peripheral venous blood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;45: 1624.
  • 39
    Sato K, Ohsawa N. Radioimmunoassay for etiocholanolone. Steroids 1977;29: 295308.DOI: 10.1016/0039-128X(77)90001-0
  • 40
    Rittmaster RS, Stoner E, Thompson DL, et al. Effect of MK-906, a specific 5α-reductase inhibitor, on serum androgens and androgen conjugates in normal men. J Androl 1989;10: 25962.
  • 41
    Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Rittmaster RS, et al. Effects of finasteride (MK-906), a 5α-reductase inhibitor, on circulating androgens in male volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70: 113641.
  • 42
    Carmina E, Lobo RA. Evidence for increased androsterone metabolism in some normoandrogenic women with acne. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76: 11114.
  • 43
    Ueshiba H, Takeda S, Segawa M, et al. Serum androsterone levels in children. Horm Metab Res 1996;28: 1902.
  • 44
    Labrie F, Belanger A, Cusan L, et al. Marked decline in serum concentrations of adrenal C19 sex steroid precursors and conjugated androgen metabolites during aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82: 2396402.DOI: 10.1210/jc.82.8.2396
  • 45
    Kim YS, Zhang H, Kim HY. Profiling neurosteroids in cerebrospinal fluids and plasma by gas chromatography/electron capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 2000;277: 18795.DOI: 10.1006/abio.1999.4384
  • 46
    Hammond GL, Hirvonen J, Vihko R. Progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone and androsterone concentrations in specific regions of the human brain. J Steroid Biochem 1983;18: 1859.DOI: 10.1016/0022-4731(83)90086-9
  • 47
    Wang M, Seippel L, Purdy RH, et al. Relationship between symptom severity and steroid variation in women with premenstrual syndrome: study on serum pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate, 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81: 107682.DOI: 10.1210/jc.81.3.1076
  • 48
    Schmidt PJ, Purdy RH, Moore PH Jr, et al. Circulating levels of anxiolytic steroids in the luteal phase in women with premenstrual syndrome and in control subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79: 125660.DOI: 10.1210/jc.79.5.1256
  • 49
    Galli R, Luisi M, Pizzanelli C, et al. Circulating levels of allopregnanolone, an anticonvulsant metabolite of progesterone, in women with partial epilepsy in the postcritical phase. Epilepsia 2001;42: 2169.DOI: 10.1046/j.1528-1157.2001.07600.x
  • 50
    Horton R, Rosner JM, Forsham PH. Urinary excretion pattern of injection H3-testosterone. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1963;114: 4002.
  • 51
    Brochu M, Belanger A. Increase in plasma steroid glucuronide levels in men from infancy to adulthood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64: 12837.
  • 52
    Belanger A, Brochu M, Lacoste D, et al. Steroid glucuronides: human circulatory levels and formation by LNCaP cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1991;40: 5938.
  • 53
    Zwicker H, Rittmaster RS. Androsterone sulfate: physiology and clinical significance in hirsute women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76: 1126.DOI: 10.1210/jc.76.1.112
  • 54
    Rhodes ME, Harney JP, Frye CA. Gonadal, adrenal, and neuroactive steroids' role in ictal activity. Brain Res 2004;1000: 818.DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2003.12.023
  • 55
    Frye CA, Reed TA. Androgenic neurosteroids: anti-seizure effects in an animal model of epilepsy. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1988;23: 38599.DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4530(98)00009-2
  • 56
    Reddy DS. Anticonvulsant activity of the testosterone-derived neurosteroid 3α-androstanediol. Neuroreport 2004;15: 5158.DOI: 10.1097/00001756-200403010-00026
  • 57
    Lookingbill DP, Demers LM, Wang C, et al. Clinical and biochemical parameters of androgen action in normal healthy Caucasian versus Chinese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72: 12428.