• 1
    Loscher W. New visions in the pharmacology of anticonvulsion. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;342: 113.
  • 2
    Loscher W. Valproate: a reappraisal of its pharmacodynamic properties and mechanisms of action. Progr Neurobiol 1999;58: 3159.
  • 3
    Silberstein SD. Valproic acid: clinical efficacy and use in other neurological disorders. In: LevyRH, MattsonRH, MeldrumBS, et al. eds. Antiepileptic drugs, 5th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002: 818.
  • 4
    Swann AC. Valproic acid: clinical efficacy and use in psychiatric disorders. In: LevyRH, MattsonRH, MeldrumBS, et al. eds. Antiepileptic drugs, 5th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002: 829.
  • 5
    Davis LL, Ryan W, Adinoff B, et al. Comprehensive review of the psychiatric uses of valproate. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000,20(suppl 1):1S17S.
  • 6
    Loscher W. Pharmacological effects and mechanism of action. In: LoscherW, ed. Valproate. Basal : Birkhauser Verlag, 1999: 7.
  • 7
    Radatz M, Nau H. Toxicity. In: LoscherW, ed. Valproate. Basal : Birkhauser Verlag, 1999: 91.
  • 8
    Isoherranen N; Yagen B, Spiegelstein O, et al. Anticonvulsant activity, teratogenicity and pharmacokinetics of novel valproyltaurinamide derivatives in mice. Br J Pharmacol 2003;139: 75564.
  • 9
    Spiegelstein O, Chatterjie N, Alexander G, et al. Teratogenicity of valproate conjugates with anticonvulsant activity in mice. Epilepsy Res 2003;57: 14552.
  • 10
    Tang W, Palaty J, Abbott FS. Time course of α-fluorinated valproic acid in mouse brain and serum and its effect on synaptosomal γ-aminobutyric acid levels in comparison to valproic acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282: 116372.
  • 11
    Baldwin GS, Abbott FS; Nau H. Binding of a valproate metabolite to the trifunctional protein of fatty acid oxidation. FEBS Lett 1996;384: 5860.
  • 12
    Hadad S, Bialer M. Pharmacokinetic analysis and antiepileptic activity of two new isomers of N-valproyl glycinamide. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1997;18: 55766.
  • 13
    Isoherranen N, White HS, Finnell RH, et al. Anticonvulsant profile and teratogenicity of N-methyl-tetramethylcyclopropyl carboxamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Epilepsia 2002;43: 11526.
  • 14
    Bennani YL, Bunnelle WH, Chang S, et al. Preparation of spirocyclopropyl amides and acids as anticonvulsants. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. US 2004077616A1.
  • 15
    Lichtman AH. The up-and-down method substantially reduces the number of animals required to determine antinociceptive ED50 values. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1998;40: 815.
  • 16
    Peeters BWMM, Spooren WPJM, Van Luijtelaar ELJM, et al. The WAG/Rij rat model for absence epilepsy: anticonvulsant drug evaluation. Neurosci Res Commun 1988;2: 937.
  • 17
    Meldrum BS, Durmuller N. Non-MNDA receptor antagonists and the development of amygdala kindling. Epilepsy Res Suppl 1996;12: 28391.
  • 18
    Otto DA, Chatzidakis C, Kaziba E, et al. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 1985;242: 2331.
  • 19
    Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72: 24854.
  • 20
    Khera KS. Common fetal aberrations and their teratologic significance: a review. Fund Appl Toxicol 1981;1: 138.
  • 21
    Khera KS. Maternal toxicity: a possible etiological factor in embryo-fetal deaths and fetal malformations of rodent-rabbit species. Teratology 1985;31: 12953.
  • 22
    Collins TFX, Welsh JJ, Black TN, et al. Potential reversibility of skeletal effects in rats exposed in utero to caffeine. Food Chem Toxicol 1987;25: 64762.
  • 23
    Van Luijtelaar ELJM, Coenen AML. The WAG/Rij model for generalized absence seizures. In: ManelisJ, BentalE, LoeberJN, DreifussFE, eds., Advances in epileptology. Vol 17. New York : Raven Press, 1989: 78.
  • 24
    Lochard JS, Levy RH. Valproic acid: reversibly acting drug? Epilepsia 1976;17: 4779.
  • 25
    Loscher W, Honack D. Comparison of anticonvulsant efficacy of valproate during prolonged treatment with one and three daily doses or continuous (“controlled release”) administration in a model of generalized seizures in rats. Epilepsia 1995;36: 92937.
  • 26
    White HS, Woodhead JM, Wilcox KS, et al. General principles: discover and preclinical development of antiepileptic drugs. In: LevyRH, MattsonRH, MeldrumBS, et al. eds. Antiepileptic drugs, 5th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002: 36.
  • 27
    Coenen ALM, Blezer EHM, Van Luijtelaar ELJM. Effects of the GABA uptake inhibitor tiagabine on electroencephalogram: spike wave discharges and behavior of rats. Epilepsy Res 1995;21: 8994.
  • 28
    Van Luijtelaar ELJM, Drinkenburg WHIM, Van Rijn CM, et al. Rat models of genetic absence epilepsy: what do EEG spike-wave discharges tell us about drug effects? Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2002;24(suppl D):6570.
  • 29
    Van Rijn CM, Weyn Banningh EW, Coenen AM. Effects of lamotrigine on absence seizures in rats. Pol J Pharmacol 1994;46: 46770.
  • 30
    Constanti RE, Ferreri G, Citraro R, et al. Nifedipine affects the anticonvulsant activity of topiramate in various animal models of epilepsy. Neuropharmacology 2004;46: 86578.
  • 31
    Ehlers K, Sturje H, Meeker HJ, et al. Valproic acid-induced spina bifida: a mouse model. Teratology 1992;45: 14554.
  • 32
    Beghi E. The use of anticonvulsants in neurological conditions other than epilepsy: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. CNS Drugs 1999;11: 6182.
  • 33
    Lopes da Silva F, Post RM. Evaluation and prediction of effects of antiepileptic drugs in a variety of other CNS disorders. Epilepsy Res 2002;50: 1913.