SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Harding GF, Wilkins AJ, Erba G, et al. Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: expert consensus of the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia 2005;46: 142325.
  • 2
    Newmark ME, Penry JK. Photosensitivity and epilepsy: a review. New York : Raven Press, 1979.
  • 3
    Harding GFA, Jeavons PM. Photosensitive epilepsy. London : MacKeith Press, 1994.
  • 4
    Gowers WR. Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive diseases: their causes, symptoms and treatment. New York : Wood, 1885.
  • 5
    Radovici MM, Misirliou VL, Gluckman M. Epilepsie reflexe provoquee par excitations optiques des rayons solaires. Rev Neurol 1932;1: 13058.
  • 6
    Livingston S. Comments on the study of light-induced epilepsy in children. Am J Dis Child 1952;83: 409.
  • 7
    Binnie CD, Wilkins AJ. Visually induced seizures not caused by flicker (intermittent light stimulation). Adv Neurol 1998;75: 12338.
  • 8
    Guerrini R, Bonanni P, Parmeggiani L, et al. Induction of partial seizures by visual stimulation: clinical and electroencephalographic features and evoked potential studies. Adv Neurol 1998;75: 15978.
  • 9
    Jeavons PM, Harding GF. Photosensitive epilepsy: a review of the literature and a study of 460 patients. In: Clinics in developmental medicine. No. 56. London : William Heineman Medical Books, 1975: 1121.
  • 10
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA. Photosensitivity in epilepsy: electrophysiological and clinical correlates. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1989;125: 3149.
  • 11
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA. Reflex seizures induced by intermittent light stimulation. Adv Neurol 1998;75: 99121.
  • 12
    Parra J, Kalitzin SN, Lopes da Silva FH. Photosensitivity and visually induced seizures: review. Curr Opin Neurol 2005;18: 1559.
  • 13
    Verrotti A, Trotta D, Salladini C, et al. Photosensitivity and epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2004;19: 5718.
  • 14
    Wilkins AJ. Visual stress. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • 15
    Zifkin BG, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité D. Reflex epilepsy and reflex seizures of the visual system: a clinical review. Epileptic Disord 2000;2: 12936.
  • 16
    Gastaut H, Regis H, Bostem F. Attacks provoked by television, and their mechanism Epilepsia 1962;3: 43845.
  • 17
    Bickford RG, Daly D, Keith HM. Convulsive effects of light stimulation in children. Am J Dis Child 1953;8: 17083.
  • 18
    Harding GF, Harding PF. Televised material and photosensitive epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):659.
  • 19
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Binnie CD, Harding GF, et al. Photic stimulation: standardization of screening methods. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):759.
  • 20
    Rubboli G, Parra J, Seri S, et al. EEG diagnostic procedures and special investigations in the assessment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):359.
  • 21
    Nagarajan L, Kulkarni A, Palumbo-Clark L, et al. Photoparoxysmal responses in children: their characteristics and clinical correlates. Pediatr Neurol 2003;29: 2226.
  • 22
    Waltz S, Christen HJ, Doose H. The different patterns of the photo paroxysmal response: a genetic study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992; 83: 13845.
  • 23
    Maheshwari MC, Jeavons PM. The clinical significance of occipital spikes as a sole response to intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1975;39: 935.
  • 24
    Jayakar P, Chiappa KH. Clinical correlations of photoparoxysmal responses. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;75: 2514.
  • 25
    Reilly EL, Peters JF. Relationship of some varieties of electroencephalographic photosensitivity to clinical convulsive disorders. Neurology 1973;23: 10507.
  • 26
    Puglia JF, Brenner RP, Soso MJ. Relationship between prolonged and self-limited photoparoxysmal responses and seizure incidence: study and review. J Clin Neurophysiol 1992;9: 13744.
  • 27
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Binnie CD, Meinardi H. Photosensitive patients: symptoms and signs during intermittent photic stimulation and their relation to seizures in daily life. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50: 15469.
  • 28
    Jabbari B, Russo MB, Russo ML Electroencephalogram of asymptomatic adult subjects. Clin Neurophysiol 2000;111: 1025.
  • 29
    Agathonikou A, Koutroumanidis M, Panayiotopoulos CP. Fixation-off-sensitive epilepsy with absences and absence status: video-EEG documentation. Neurology 1997;48: 2314.
  • 30
    DeBittencourt PRM. Photosensitivity: the magnitude of the problem. Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):15.
  • 31
    Erba G. Preventing seizures from “Pocket Monsters”: a way to control reflex epilepsy. Neurology 2001;57: 17478.
  • 32
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Binnie CD, Harding GFA, et al. Medical technology assessment: photic stimulation: standardization of screening methods. Neurophysiol Clin 1999;29: 31824.
  • 33
    Shiraishi H, Fujiwara T, Inoue Y, et al. Photosensitivity in relation to epileptic syndromes: a survey from an epilepsy center in Japan. Epilepsia 2001;42: 3937.
  • 34
    Appleton R, Beirne M, Acomb B. Photosensitivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Seizure 2000;9: 10811.
  • 35
    Holden EW, Thanh Nguyen H, Grossman E, et al. Estimating prevalence, incidence, and disease-related mortality for patients with epilepsy in managed care organizations. Epilepsia 2005;46: 3119.
  • 36
    Fisher RS, Van Emde Boas W, Blume W, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia 2005;46: 4702.
  • 37
    Gregory RP, Oates T, Merry RTG. Electroencephalogram epileptiform abnormalities and candidates for aircrew training. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;86: 757.
  • 38
    Trojaborg W. EEG abnormalities in 5,893 jet pilot applicants registered in a 20-year period. Clin Electroencephalogr 1992;23: 728.
  • 39
    Jeavons PM, Bishop A, Harding GF. The prognosis of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 1986;27: 56975.
  • 40
    Wadlington WB, Rightly HD Jr. Light-induced seizures. J Pediatr 1965;66: 30012.
  • 41
    Danesi MA. Seasonal variations in the incidence of photoparoxysmal response to stimulation among photosensitive epileptic patients: evidence from repeated EEG recordings. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51: 8757.
  • 42
    Steinkruger M. Photosensitive epilepsy. J Neurosurg Nurs 1985;17: 35561.
  • 43
    Doose H, Waltz S. Photosensitivity-genetics and clinical significance. Neuropediatrics 1993;24: 24955.
  • 44
    Eeg-Olofsson O, Petersen I, Sellden U. The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children from the age of 1 through 15 years: paroxysmal activity. Neuropadiatrie 1971;2: 375404.
  • 45
    Petersen I, Eeg-Olofsson O. The development of the electroencephalogram in normal children from the age of 1 through 15 years: non-paroxysmal activity. Neuropadiatrie 1971;2: 247304.
  • 46
    Harding GF. TV can be bad for your health. Nat Med 1998;4: 2657.
  • 47
    Ishida S, Yamashita Y, Matsuishi T, et al. Photosensitive seizures provoked while viewing “Pocket Monsters,” a made-for-television animation program in Japan. Epilepsia 1998;39: 13404.
  • 48
    Takahashi T, Tsukahara Y. Pocket Monster incident and low luminance visual stimuli: special reference to deep red flicker stimulation. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1998;40: 6317.
  • 49
    Takada H, Aso K, Watanabe K, et al. Epileptic seizures induced by animated cartoon, “Pocket Monster.” Epilepsia 1999;40: 9971002.
  • 50
    Iinuma K. TV-animation induced seizures. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1998;40: 6245.
  • 51
    Quirk JA, Fish DR, Smith SJ, et al. First seizures associated with playing electronic screen games: a community-based study in Great Britain. Ann Neurol 1995;37: 7337.
  • 52
    Aziz H, Francis P, Ali SM, et al. Epilepsy and photosensitivity. J Pak Med Assoc 1989;39: 2124.
  • 53
    Takahashi T. Photoconvulsive response and disposition. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 1976;30: 34956.
  • 54
    Quirk JA, Fish DR, Smith SJ, et al. Incidence of photosensitive epilepsy: a prospective national study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;95: 2607.
  • 55
    Harding GF, Edson A, Jeavons PM. Persistence of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 1997;38: 6639.
  • 56
    Verrotti A, Trotta D, Salladini C, et al. Photosensitivity and epilepsy: a follow-up study. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004;46: 34751.
  • 57
    Scott DF, Elian M. The effects on the EEG of intermittent photic stimulation in patients over 30 years of age. Clin Electroencephalogr 1981;12: 213.
  • 58
    Binnie CD. Simple reflex epilepsies. In: EngelJJr, PedleyTA, eds. A comprehensive textbook of epilepsy. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven, 1997: 250714.
  • 59
    De Graaf AS, Van Wyk Kotze TJ, et al. Photoparoxysmal responses in the electroencephalograms of some ethnic groups of the Cape Peninsula. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1980;50: 27581.
  • 60
    Obeid T, Daif AK, Waheed G, et al. Photosensitive epilepsies and photoconvulsive responses in Arabs. Epilepsia 1991;32: 7781.
  • 61
    Victor M, Brausch C. The role of abstinence in the genesis of alcoholic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1967;8: 120.
  • 62
    Wolf P, Goosses R. Relation of photosensitivity to epileptic syndromes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49: 138691.
  • 63
    Hennessy MJ, Binnie CD. Photogenic partial seizures. Epilepsia 2000;41: 5964.
  • 64
    Gilliam FG, Chiappa KH. Significance of spontaneous epileptiform abnormalities associated with a photoparoxysmal response. Neurology 1995;45: 4536.
  • 65
    Hormes JT, Mellinger JF, Klass DW. Testing for electroencephalographic activation with video games in patients with light sensitivity. Am J EEG Technol 1995;35: 3745.
  • 66
    Binnie CD, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, De Korte R. Photosensitivity as a model for acute antiepileptic drug studies. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1986;63: 3541.
  • 67
    De Keyser J, Michotte A, Ebinger G. Television induced seizures in alcoholics. Br Med J 1984;289: 11912.
  • 68
    Ferrie CD, De Marco P, Grunewald RA, et al. Video game induced seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57: 92531.
  • 69
    Wilkins A, Lindsay J. Common forms of reflex epilepsy: physiological mechanisms and techniques for treatment. Recent Adv Epilepsy 1985;2: 23971.
  • 70
    Mayr N, Wimberger D, Pichler H, et al. Influence of television on photosensitive epileptics. Eur Neurol 1987;27: 2018.
  • 71
    Binnie CD, Findlay J, Wilkins AJ. Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in photosensitive epilepsy implied by the effects of moving patterns. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1985;61: 16.
  • 72
    Chatrian GE, Lettich E, Miller LH, et al. Pattern-sensitive epilepsy, I: an electrographic study of its mechanisms. Epilepsia 1970;11: 12549.
  • 73
    Radhakrishnan K, St Louis EK, Johnson JA, et al. Pattern-sensitive epilepsy: electroclinical characteristics, natural history, and delineation of the epileptic syndrome. Epilepsia 2005;46: 4858.
  • 74
    Wilkins AJ, Darby CE, Binnie CD. Neurophysiological aspects of pattern-sensitive epilepsy. Brain 1979;102: 125.
  • 75
    Guy NTM, Teillet MA, Schuler B, et al. Pattern of electroencephalographic activity during light induced seizures in genetic epileptic chickens and brain chimeras. Neurosci Lett 1992;145: 558.
  • 76
    Naquet R, Menini C, Riche D, et al. Photic epilepsy problems raised in man and animals. Ital J Neurol Sci 1987;8: 43747.
  • 77
    Ostrach LH, Crabtree JW, Campbell BG, et al. Effects of bicuculline-induced epileptiform activity on development of receptive field properties in striate cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus of the rabbit. Brain Res 1984;317: 11323.
  • 78
    Wilkins AJ, Bonanni P, Porciatti V, et al. Physiology of human photosensitivity. Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):713.
  • 79
    Meldrum BS, Wilkins AJ. Photosensitive epilepsy: integration of pharmacological and psychophysical evidence. In: SchwatzkroinP, WhealH, eds. Electrophysiology of epilepsy. London : Academic Press, 1984: 5177.
  • 80
    Wilkins AJ, Binnie C, Darby CE, et al. Inferences regarding the visual precipitation of seizures, eye-strain and headaches. In: AvoliM, GloorP, KostopoulosG, et al., eds. Generalized epilepsy: neurobiological approaches. Birkhauser: Boston , 1990: 31426.
  • 81
    Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex. J Physiol 1959;148: 57491.
  • 82
    Zeki S. The visual association cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1993;3: 1559.
  • 83
    Porciatti V, Bonanni P, Fiorentini A, et al. Lack of cortical contrast gain control in human photosensitive epilepsy. Nat Neurosci 2000;3: 25963.
  • 84
    Quesney LF, Andermann F, Gloor P. Dopaminergic mechanism in generalized photosensitive epilepsy. Neurology 1981;31: 15424.
  • 85
    Fischer-Williams M, Ponset M, Riche D, et al. light induced epilepsy in the baboon Papio papio: cortical and depth recordings. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1968;25: 55769.
  • 86
    Matsuoka H. Seizure generation mechanisms in reflex epilepsy. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1990;44: 31720.
  • 87
    Takasaka Y, Takamatsu K, Nakagawara M. Anterior-posterior relationships of EEG in photosensitive subjects: coherence and cross-phase-spectral analysis. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1989;43: 65163.
  • 88
    Parra J, Kalitzin SN, Iriarte J, et al. Gamma-band phase clustering and photosensitivity: is there an underlying mechanism common to photosensitive epilepsy and visual perception? Brain 2003;126: 116472.
  • 89
    Inoue Y, Fukao K, Araki T, et al. Photosensitive and nonphotosensitive electronic screen game-induced seizures. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):816.
  • 90
    Chiappa KH, Hill RA, Huang-Hellinger F, et al. Photosensitive epilepsy studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):37.
  • 91
    Da Silva EA, Muller RA, Chugani DC, et al. Brain activation during intermittent photic stimulation: a [15O]-water PET study on photosensitive epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):1722.
  • 92
    Wilkins AJ, Binnie CD, Darby CE. Visually-induced seizures. Prog Neurobiol 1980;15: 85117.
  • 93
    Benbadis SR, Gerson WA, Harvey JH, et al. Photosensitive temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology 1996;46: 15402.
  • 94
    Isnard J, Guenot M, Fischer C, et al. Stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) study of light-induced mesiotemporal epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1998;39: 1098103.
  • 95
    Topalkara K, Alarcon G, Binnie CD. Effects of flash frequency and repetition of intermittent photic stimulation on photoparoxysmal responses. Seizure 1998;7: 24955.
  • 96
    Honda Y. Photo epilepsy evoked by square-wave pulses: report of the case studied by changing stimulus intensity and duration. J Pediatr Ophthalmol 1977;14: 30915.
  • 97
    Hiachikawa Y, Yamamoto J, Furuya E, et al. Photosensitive epilepsy: relationships between the visual evoked responses and the epileptic formed discharges induced by intermittent photo stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1967;23: 32034.
  • 98
    Chatrian GE, Lettich E, Miller LH, et al. Pattern-sensitive epilepsy, II: clinical changes, tests of responsiveness and motor output, alterations of evoked potentials and therapeutic measures. Epilepsia 1970;11: 15162.
  • 99
    Binnie CD, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, De Korte R, et al. Visual display units and risk of seizures[Letter]. Lancet 1985;1: 991.
  • 100
    Leijten FS, Dekker E, Spekreijse H, et al. Light diffusion in photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998;106: 38791.
  • 101
    Anyanwu E, Watson NA. Visually-evoked pattern and photomyoclonic responses in video game and television epilepsy: case reports. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Ther Latinoam 1996;46: 17784.
  • 102
    Anyanwu E. Mental imagery of photic stimulation provokes paroxysmal EEG activity in a photosensitive patient who self-induces seizures. Ital J Neurol Sci 1997;18: 93100.
  • 103
    Rafal RD, Laxer KD, Janowsky JS. Seizures triggered by blinking in non-photosensitive patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49: 4457.
  • 104
    Binnie CD, De Korte RA, Wisman T. Fluorescent lighting and epilepsy. Epilepsia 1979;20: 7257.
  • 105
    Takahashi T, Tsukahara Y. Influence of color on the photoconvulsive response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1976;41: 12436.
  • 106
    Tobimatsu S, Zhang YM, Tomoda Y, et al. Chromatic sensitive epilepsy: a variant of photosensitive epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1999;45: 7903.
  • 107
    Binnie CD, Estevez O, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, et al. Colour in photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1984;58: 38791.
  • 108
    Takahashi Y, Fujiwara T, Yagi K, et al. Wavelength dependence of photoparoxysmal responses in photosensitive patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):237.
  • 109
    Wilkins AJ, Baker A, Amin D, et al. Treatment of photosensitive epilepsy using coloured glasses. Seizure 1999;8: 4449.
  • 110
    Stefansson SB, Darby CE, Wilkins AJ, et al. Television epilepsy and pattern sensitivity. Br Med J 1977;2: 8890.
  • 111
    Brinciotti M, Matricardi M, Pelliccia A, et al. Pattern sensitivity and photosensitivity in epileptic children with visually induced seizures. Epilepsia 1994;35: 8429.
  • 112
    Anyanwu E. Evaluation of the laboratory and environmental factors that induce seizures in photosensitive epilepsy. Acta Neurol Belg 1999;99: 12632.
  • 113
    Funatsuka M, Fujita M, Shirakawa S, et al. Study on photo-pattern sensitivity in patients with electronic screen game-induced seizures (ESGS): effects of spatial resolution, brightness, and pattern movement. Epilepsia 2001;42: 118597.
  • 114
    Wilkins AJ, Emmett J, Harding G. Characterising the flashing and pattern images that precipitate seizures, and optimising guidelines to prevent them. Paper presented at the Photosensitivity and Seizures Workshop. Alexandria , Va : Epilepsy Foundation of America , 2004.
  • 115
    Aso K, Watanabe K, Negoro T, et al. Photosensitive epilepsy in children. Seizure 1994;3: 6771.
  • 116
    Darby CE, De Korte RA, Binnie CD, et al. The self-induction of epileptic seizures by eye closure. Epilepsia 1980;21: 3141.
  • 117
    Tassinari CA, Rubboli G, Rizzi R, et al. Self-induction of visually-induced seizures. Adv Neurol 1998;75: 17992.
  • 118
    Spector S, Cull C, Goldstein LH. Seizure precipitants and perceived self-control of seizures in adults with poorly-controlled epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2000;38: 20716.
  • 119
    Badinand-Hubert N, Bureau M, Hirsch E, et al. Epilepsies and video games: results of a multicentric study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998;107: 4227.
  • 120
    Fylan F, Harding GFA. The effect of television frame rate on EEG abnormalities in photosensitive and pattern-sensitive epilepsy. Epilepsia 1997;38: 112431.
  • 121
    Ricci S, Vigevano F, Manfredi M, Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens. Neurology 1998;50: 7903.
  • 122
    Enoki H, Akiyama T, Hattori J, et al. Photosensitive fits elicited by TV animation: an electroencephalographic study. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1998;40: 62630.
  • 123
    Rushton DN. “Space invader” epilepsy. Lancet 1981;1: 501.
  • 124
    Jeavons PM, Barton ME, Bishop A. Seizures and hand-held space invaders. Lancet 1981;2: 758.
  • 125
    Daneshmend TK, Campbell MJ. Dark warrior epilepsy Br Med J 1982;284: 17512.
  • 126
    Dahlquist NR, Mellinger JF, Klass DW. Hazard of video games in patients with light-sensitive epilepsy. JAMA 1983;249: 7767.
  • 127
    Christie T. Death after an attack precipitated by playing Nintendo game. Sun 1993;21: 5. Q5
  • 128
    Takahashi T. Photosensitive epilepsy. Tokyo : Igaku-Shoin, 2002.
  • 129
    Bureau M, Hirsch E, Vigevano F. Epilepsy and videogames. Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):13.
  • 130
    Harding GF, Jeavons PM, Edson AS. Video material and epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 120816.
  • 131
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Da Silva AM, Ricci S, et al. Video-game epilepsy: a European study. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):704.
  • 132
    Maeda Y, Kurokawa T, Sakamoto K, et al. Electroclinical study of video-game epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32: 493500.
  • 133
    Graf WD, Chatrian GE, Glass ST, et al. Video game-related seizures: a report on 10 patients and a review of the literature. Pediatrics 1994;93: 5516.
  • 134
    Takahashi Y, Shigematsu H, Kubota H, et al. Nonphotosensitive video game-induced partial seizures. Epilepsia 1995;36: 83741.
  • 135
    Pellouchoud E, Smith ME, et al. Mental effort-related EEG modulation during video-game play: comparison between juvenile subjects with epilepsy and normal control subjects. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):3843.
  • 136
    William DG, Gian-Amelio C, Stefan TG, et al. Video game-related seizures: a report on two patients and a review of the literature. Pediatrics 1994; 93: 5516.
  • 137
    Ricci S, Vigevano F. The effect of video-game software in video-game epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):317.
  • 138
    Millett CJ, Fish DR, Thompson PJ, et al. Seizures during video-game play and other common leisure pursuits in known epilepsy patients without visual sensitivity. Epilepsia 1999;40(suppl 4):5964.
  • 139
    Millett CJ, Fish DR, Thompson PJ. A survey of epilepsy-patient perceptions of video-game material/electronic screens and other factors as seizure precipitants. Seizure 1997;6: 4579.
  • 140
    Harding GF, Takahashi T. Regulations; what next? Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):467.
  • 141
    Nomura M, Takahashi T, Kamijo K, et al. A new adaptive temporal filter: application to photosensitive epilepsy patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000;54: 68590.
  • 142
    Parra J, Kalitzin SN, Stroink H, et al. Removal of epileptogenic sequences from video material: the role of color. Neurology 2005;64: 78791.
  • 143
    Capovilla G, Beccaria F, Romeo A, et al. Effectiveness of a particular blue lens on photoparoxysmal response in photosensitive epileptic patients. Ital J Neurol Sci 1999;20: 1616.
  • 144
    Kepecs MR, Boro A, Haut S, et al. A novel nonpharmacologic treatment for photosensitive epilepsy: a report of three patients tested with blue cross-polarized glasses. Epilepsia 2004;45: 115862.
  • 145
    Takahashi T, Tsukahara Y. Usefulness of blue sunglasses in photosensitive epilepsy. Epilepsia 1992;33: 51721.
  • 146
    Takahashi Y, Sato T, Goto K, et al. Optical filters inhibiting television-induced photosensitive seizures. Neurology 2001;57: 176773.
  • 147
    Covanis A, Stodieck SR, Wilkins AJ. Treatment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 2004;45(suppl 1):405.
  • 148
    Rimmer EM, Milligan NM, Richens A. A comparison of the acute effect of single doses of vigabatrin and sodium valproate on photosensitivity in epileptic patients. Epilepsy Res 1987;1: 33946.
  • 149
    Harding GFA, Herrick CE, Jeavons PM. A controlled study of the effect of sodium valproate on photosensitive epilepsy and its prognosis. Epilepsia 1978;19: 55565.
  • 150
    Moller A, Jensen LH, Skrumsager B, et al. Inhibition of photosensitive seizures in man by the beta-carboline, ZK 95962, a selective benzodiazepine receptor agonist. Epilepsy Res 1990;5: 1559.
  • 151
    Saenz-Lope E, Herranz-Tanarro FJ, Masdeu JC, et al. Familial photosensitive epilepsy: effectiveness of clonazepam. Clin Electroencephalogr 1984;15: 4752.
  • 152
    Clemens B. Dopamine agonist treatment of self-induced pattern-sensitive epilepsy: a case report. Epilepsy Res 1988;2: 3403.
  • 153
    Shuper A, Vining EP. Photosensitive complex partial seizures aggravated by phenytoin. Pediatr Neurol 1991;7: 4712.
  • 154
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DGA, Marescaux C, Stodieck S, et al. Photosensitive epilepsy: a model to study the effects of antiepileptic drugs: evaluation of the piracetam analogue, levetiracetam. Epilepsy Res 1996;25: 22530.
  • 155
    Binnie CD, Harding GFA, Richens A, et al. Video games and epileptic seizures: a consensus statement. Seizure 1994;3: 2456.
  • 156
    Takahashi Y, Fujiwara T. Effectiveness of broadcasting guidelines for photosensitive seizure prevention. Neurology 2004;62: 9903.