• 1
    Jennett B. Epilepsy after non-missile head injury. 2nd ed. London : Heinemann, 1975.
  • 2
    Caveness WF, Meirowsky AM, Rish BL, et al. The nature of post-traumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg 1979;50: 54553.
  • 3
    D'Alessandro R, Tinuper P, Ferrara R, et al. CT scan prediction of late posttraumatic epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45: 11535.
  • 4
    D'Alessandro R, Ferrara R, Cortelli P, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy prediction and prophylaxis: open problems. Arch Neurol 1983;40: 831.
  • 5
    Hauser WA, Tabbador K, Factor PR, et al. Seizures and head injury in an urban community. Neurology 1984;34: 74651.
  • 6
    Salazar AM, Jabbari B, Vance SC, et al. Epilepsy after penetrating head injury: I. clinical correlates: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology 1985;35: 140614.
  • 7
    D'Alessandro R, Ferrara R, Benassi G, et al. Computer tomographic scans in posttraumatic epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1988;45: 423.
  • 8
    Pagni CA. Posttraumatic epilepsy: incidence and prophylaxis. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1990;50: 3847.
  • 9
    De Santis A, Sganzerla E, Spagnoli D, et al. Risk factors for late posttraumatic epilepsy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1992;55: 647.
  • 10
    Pohlmann-Eden B, Bruckmeir J. Predictors and dynamics of posttraumatic epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1997;95: 25762.
  • 11
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, et al. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 204.
  • 12
    Asikainen I, Kaste M, Sarna S. Early and late posttraumatic seizures in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation patients: brain injury factors causing late seizures and influence of seizures on long-term outcome. Epilepsia 1999;40: 5849.
  • 13
    Annegers JF, Coan SP. The risks of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury. Seizure 2000;9: 4537.
  • 14
    Herman ST. Epilepsy after brain insult: targeting epileptogenesis. Neurology 2002;59(S5):216.
  • 15
    Leone M, Bottacchi E, Beghi E, et al. Risk factors for a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure in adult life. Neurol Sci 2002;23: 99106.
  • 16
    Englander J, Bushnik T, Duong TT, et al. Analyzing risk factors for late posttraumatic seizures: a prospective multicenter investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84: 36573.
  • 17
    Temkin NR. Risk factors for posttraumatic seizures in adults. Epilepsia 2003;44S10: 1820.
  • 18
    Kuzniecki RI, Jackson GD. Magnetic resonance in epilepsy. New York : Raven Press, 1995.
  • 19
    Angeleri F, Majkowski J, Cacchiò G, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy risk factors: one–year prospective study after head injury. Epilepsia 1999;40: 122230.
  • 20
    Diaz-Arrastia R, Agostini MA, Frol AB, et al. Neurophysiologic and neuroradiologic features of intractable epilepsy after traumatic brain injury in adults. Arch Neurol 2000;57: 16116.
  • 21
    Mazzini L, Cossa FM, Angelini E, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy: neuroradiologic and neuropsychological assessment of long-term outcome. Epilepsia 2003;44: 56974.
  • 22
    Kumar R, Gupta RK, Husain M, et al. Magnetization transfer MR imaging in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003;24: 21824.
  • 23
    Foulkes MA, Eisenberg HM, Jane JA, et al., and the Traumatic Coma Data Bank Research Group. The traumatic coma data bank: design, methods, and baseline characteristics. J Neurosurg 1991;75(suppl):S813
  • 24
    Messori A, Polonara G, Mabiglia C, et al. Is haemosiderin visible indefinitely on gradient-echo MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Neuroradiology 2003;45: 8816.
  • 25
    Gentry LR, Godersky JC, Thompson B. MR Imaging of head trauma: review of the distribution and radiopathologic features of traumatic lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988;150: 66372.
  • 26
    Kaplan EM, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation for observations. J Am Stat Assoc 1958;53: 45781.
  • 27
    Lee TE. Statistical methods for survival data analysis. Belmont , CA : Wadsworth, 1990.
  • 28
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc 1972;34: 187220.
  • 29
    Jackson GD, Berkovic SF, Duncan JS, et al. Optimizing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis using MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1993;14: 75362.
  • 30
    Jacobs KM, Graber KD, Kharazia VN, et al. Postlesional epilepsy: the ultimate brain plasticity. Epilepsia 2000;S6: 15361.
  • 31
    Lowenstein D. Epilepsy after head injury: the impact of impact. Ann Neurol 2001;50: 6967.
  • 32
    Santhakumar V, Ratzliff AD, Jeng J, et al. Long-term hyperexcitability in the hippocampus after experimental head trauma. Ann Neurol 2001;50: 70817.
  • 33
    Diaz-Arrastia R, Gong Y, Fair S, et al. Increased risk of late posttraumatic seizures associated with inheritance of APOE epsilon4 allele. Arch Neurol 2003;60: 81822.
  • 34
    Samuelsson C, Kumlien E, Elfving A, et al. The effects of PBN (phenyl-butyl-nitrone) on GLT-1 levels and on the extracellular levels of amino acids and energy metabolites in a model of iron-induced posttraumatic epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2003;56: 16573.
  • 35
    D'Ambrosio R, Fairbanks JP, Fender JS, et al. Post-traumatic epilepsy following fluid percussion injury in the rat. Brain 2004;127: 30414.
  • 36
    Adams JH, Graham DI, Jennet B. The structural basis of moderate disability after traumatic brain damage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71: 5214.
  • 37
    Appleton RE, Demellweek C. Post-traumatic epilepsy in children requiring inpatient rehabilitation following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;72: 66972.
  • 38
    Jennet WB, Levin WS. Traumatic epilepsy after closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23: 295301.
  • 39
    Frey LC. Epidemiology of posttraumatic epilepsy: a critical review. Epilepsia 2003;44(S10):117.
  • 40
    Atlas SW, Mark AS, Grossman RI, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage: gradient-echo MR imaging at 1.5 T: comparison with spin-echo imaging and clinical applications. Radiology 1988;168: 8037.
  • 41
    Willmore LJ, Sypert GW, Munson JB. Recurrent seizures induced by cortical iron injection: a model of posttraumatic epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1978;4: 32936.
  • 42
    Willmore LJ. Post-traumatic epilepsy: cellular mechanisms and implications for treatment. Neurology 1990;31(S3):6773.