Brainstem Seizure Severity Regulates Forebrain Seizure Expression in the Audiogenic Kindling Model
Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2005
Volume 46, Issue 9, pages 1380–1388, September 2005
How to Cite
Merrill, M. A., Clough, R. W., Jobe, P. C. and Browning, R. A. (2005), Brainstem Seizure Severity Regulates Forebrain Seizure Expression in the Audiogenic Kindling Model. Epilepsia, 46: 1380–1388. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.39404.x
- Issue online: 1 SEP 2005
- Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2005
- Accepted May 1, 2005.
- Brainstem seizure;
- Forebrain seizure;
Summary: Purpose: Although sound-induced (audiogenic) seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR) initially occur independent of the forebrain, repeated audiogenic seizures recruit forebrain seizure circuits in a process referred to as audiogenic kindling. In GEPR-3s, audiogenic kindling results in facial and forelimb (F&F) clonic seizures that are typical of forebrain seizures. However, in GEPR-9s, audiogenic kindling produces posttonic all-limb clonus not usually observed during forebrain seizures. We hypothesized that the more severe brainstem seizures of the GEPR-9 prevent the expression of F&F clonic seizures during audiogenic kindling. Therefore attenuation of audiogenic seizures during audiogenic kindling in GEPR-9s should allow F&F clonic seizures to be expressed. Likewise, intensifying audiogenic seizure severity in GEPR-3s should inhibit audiogenically kindled F&F clonic seizures. We have tested this hypothesis in the present study.
Methods: Lesions of the superior colliculus or treatment with low-dose phenytoin were used to suppress audiogenic seizure severity in GEPR-9s. Depletion of brain serotonin was used to increase the seizure severity in GEPR-3s. All GEPRs were then subjected to audiogenic kindling. Behavioral and electrographic seizures were assessed.
Results: Suppression of audiogenic seizure severity during audiogenic kindling in GEPR-9s increased the incidence forebrain seizure behavior. Kindled GEPR-9s that continued to display full tonic seizures did not exhibit forebrain convulsions, but did show posttonic clonus and forebrain seizure activity in the EEG. GEPR-3s chronically depleted of brain serotonin, along with displaying tonic brainstem seizures, tended to display less severe forebrain seizures during audiogenic kindling.
Conclusions: These findings support the concept that severe brainstem seizures prevent the behavioral expression of forebrain seizures in audiogenically kindled GEPR-9s. It appears that the severe brainstem seizure of the GEPR-9 does not allow the forebrain seizure to manifest its typical behavioral concomitants despite electrographic evidence that spike–wave discharge is occurring in the forebrain.