• 1
    Nei M, Ho RT, Sperling MR. EKG abnormalities during partial seizures in refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41: 542548.
  • 2
    Opherk C, Coromilas J, Hirsch LJ. Heart rate and EKG changes in 102 seizures: analysis of influencing factors. Epilepsy Res 2002;52: 117127.
  • 3
    Ansakorpi H, Korpelainen JT, Suominen K, et al. Interictal cardiovascular autonomic responses in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2000;41: 4247.
  • 4
    Eppinger N, Schaumann R, Jokeit H, et al. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in victims of sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Epilepsia 2004;45: 65.
  • 5
    DeGiorgio CM, Schachter SC, Handforth A, et al. Prospective long-term study of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory seizures. Epilepsia 2000;41: 11951200.
  • 6
    Morris GL III, Mueller WM. Long-term treatment with vagus nerve stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy: the Vagus Nerve Stimulation Study Group E01-E05. Neurology 1999;53: 17311735.
  • 7
    Reid SA. Surgical technique for implantation of the neurocybernetic prosthesis. Epilepsia 1990;31(suppl 2):S38S39.
  • 8
    Rutecki P. Anatomical, physiological, and theoretical basis for the antiepileptic effect of vagus nerve stimulation. Epilepsia 1990;31(suppl 2):S1S6.
  • 9
    Henry TR, Votaw JR, Pennell PB, et al. Acute blood flow changes and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in partial epilepsy. Neurology 1999;52: 11661173.
  • 10
    Galli R, Limbruno U, Pizzanelli C, et al. Analysis of RR variability in drug-resistant epilepsy patients chronically treated with vagus nerve stimulation. Auton Neurosci 2003;107: 5259.
  • 11
    Setty AB, Vaughn BV, Quint SR, et al. Heart period variability during vagal nerve stimulation. Seizure 1998;7: 213217.
  • 12
    Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures: from the Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1981;22: 489501.
  • 13
    Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1989;30: 389399.
  • 14
    Makikallio TH, Seppanen T, Niemela M, et al. Abnormalities in beat to beat complexity of heart rate dynamics in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28: 10051011.
  • 15
    Kay SM, Marple SLJ. Spectrum analysis: a modern perspective. Proc IEEE 1981;69: 13801419.
  • 16
    Pagani M, Montano N, Porta A, et al. Relationship between spectral components of cardiovascular variabilities and direct measures of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans. Circulation 1997;95: 14411448.
  • 17
    Eckberg DL. Sympathovagal balance: a critical appraisal. Circulation 1997;96: 32243232.
  • 18
    Madwed JB, Albrecht P, Mark RG, et al. Low-frequency oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate: a simple computer model. Am J Physiol 1989;256: H1573-H1579.
  • 19
    Korpelainen JT, Sotaniemi KA, Makikallio A, et al. Dynamic behavior of heart rate in ischemic stroke. Stroke 1999;30: 10081013.
  • 20
    Tulppo MP, Makikallio TH, Takala TE, et al. Quantitative beat-to-beat analysis of heart rate dynamics during exercise. Am J Physiol 1996;271: H244H252.
  • 21
    Bigger JT Jr, Steinman RC, Rolnitzky LM, et al. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants. Circulation 1996;93: 21422151.
  • 22
    Saul JP, Albrecht P, Berger RD, et al. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications. Comput Cardiol 1988;14: 419422.
  • 23
    Ho KK, Moody GB, Peng CK, et al. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics. Circulation 1997;96: 842848.
  • 24
    Ansakorpi H, Korpelainen JT, Huikuri HV, et al. Heart rate dynamics in refractory and well controlled temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;72: 2630.
  • 25
    Isojarvi JI, Ansakorpi H, Suominen K, et al. Interictal cardiovascular autonomic responses in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998;39: 420426.
  • 26
    Frysinger RC, Engel J, Harper RM. Interictal heart rate patterns in partial seizure disorders. Neurology 1993;43: 21362139.
  • 27
    Ronkainen E, Ansakorpi H, Huikuri HV, et al. Suppressed circadian heart rate dynamics in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76: 13821386.
  • 28
    Handforth A, DeGiorgio CM, Schachter SC, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy for partial-onset seizures: a randomized active-control trial. Neurology 1998;51: 4855.
  • 29
    Tomson T, Ericson M, Ihrman C, et al. Heart rate variability in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1998;30: 7783.
  • 30
    Devinsky O, Perrine K, Theodore WH. Interictal autonomic nervous system function in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1994;35: 199204.
  • 31
    Persson H, Ericson M, Tomson T. Carbamazepine affects autonomic cardiac control in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2003;57: 6975.
  • 32
    Nilsson L, Farahmand BY, Persson PG, et al. Risk factors for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: a case-control study. Lancet 1999;353: 888893.
  • 33
    Opeskin K, Harvey AS, Cordner SM, et al. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in Victoria. J Clin Neurosci 2000;7: 3437.
  • 34
    Earnest MP, Thomas GE, Eden RA, et al. The sudden unexplained death syndrome in epilepsy: demographic, clinical, and postmortem features. Epilepsia 1992;33: 310316.
  • 35
    Nashef L, Garner S, Sander JW, et al. Circumstances of death in sudden death in epilepsy: interviews of bereaved relatives. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64: 349352.
  • 36
    Schraeder PL, Lathers CM. Paroxysmal autonomic dysfunction, epileptogenic activity and sudden death. Epilepsy Res 1989;3: 5562.
  • 37
    Wannamaker BB. Autonomic nervous system and epilepsy. Epilepsia 1985;26(suppl 1):S31S39.
  • 38
    Tennis P, Cole TB, Annegers JF, et al. Cohort study of incidence of sudden unexplained death in persons with seizure disorder treated with antiepileptic drugs in Saskatchewan, Canada. Epilepsia 1995;36: 2936.
  • 39
    Nei M, Ho RT, Abou-Khalil BW, et al. EEG and ECG in sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Epilepsia 2004;45: 338345.
  • 40
    Annegers JF, Coan SP, Hauser WA, et al. Epilepsy, vagal nerve stimulation by the NCP system, all-cause mortality, and sudden, unexpected, unexplained death. Epilepsia 2000;41: 549553.