Voxel-based Optimized Morphometry (VBM) of Gray and White Matter in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) with and without Mesial Temporal Sclerosis


Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. K.D. Laxer at Pacific Epilepsy Program, California Pacific Medical Center, 2100 Webster Street, Suite 115, San Francisco, CA 94115, U.S.A. E-mail: laxerkd@.cpmcri.org


Summary: Purpose: In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with evidence of hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) volumetric gray (GM) and white (WM) matter abnormalities are not restricted to the hippocampus but also are found in extrahippocampal structures. Less is known about extrahippocampal volumetric abnormalities in TLE without hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-no). In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with and without modulation with the following aims: (a) to identify WM and GM abnormalities beyond the hippocampus in TLE-MTS and TLE-no; and (b) to determine whether extratemporal WM and GM abnormalities differ between TLE-MTS and TLE-no.

Methods: Optimized VBM of GM and WM with and without modulation was performed in 26 TLE-MTS (mean age, 35.6 ± 9.7 years), 17 TLE-no (mean age, 35.6 ± 11.1 years), and 30 healthy controls (mean age, 30.3 ± 11.1 years).

Results: In TLE-MTS, GM/WM volume and concentration reductions were found in the ipsilateral limbic system, ipsi- and contralateral neocortical regions, thalamus, cerebellum, internal capsule, and brainstem when compared with controls. In contrast, no differences of GM/WM volumes/concentrations were found between TLE-no and controls or between TLE-no and TLE-MTS.

Conclusions: In TLE-MTS, optimized VBM showed extensive GM and WM volume reductions in the ipsilateral hippocampus and in ipsi- and contralateral extrahippocampal regions. In contrast, no GM/WM volume or concentration reductions were found in TLE-no. This further supports the hypothesis that TLE-no is a distinct clinicopathologic entity from TLE-MTS and probably heterogeneous in itself.