• 1
    Theodore W. What is uncontrolled epilepsy, and who should be referred for surgery. In: SpencerSS, SpencerDD, eds. Surgery for Epilepsy. Boston : Blackwell, 1991:317.
  • 2
    During MJ, Spencer DD. Extracellular hippocampal glutamate and spontaneous seizure in the conscious human brain. Lancet 1993;341:16071610.
  • 3
    Ronne-Engström E, Hillered L, Flink R, et al. Intracerebral microdialysis of extracellular amino acids in the human epileptic focus. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;12:873876.
  • 4
    Hamberger A, Nystrom B, Larsson S, et al. Covariation of free aminoacids in human epileptogenic cortex. Epilepsy Res 1993;18:519525.
  • 5
    Carlson H, Ronne-Engström E, Ungerstedt U, et al. Seizure related elevations of extracellular amino acids in focal human epilepsy. Neurosci Lett 1992;140:3032.
  • 6
    Sherwin AL. Neuroactive amino acids in focally epileptic human brain: a review. Neurochem Res 1999;124:13871395.
  • 7
    Liu Z, Stafstrom CE, Sarkisian MR, et al. Seizure-induced glutamate release in mature and immature animals: an in vivo microdialysis study. Neuroreport 1997;8:20192023.
  • 8
    Engel J Jr, Kuhl DE, Phelps ME, et al. Comparative localization of epileptic foci in partial epilepsy by PET and EEG. Ann Neurol 1982;12:529537.
  • 9
    Chu WJ, Hetherington HP, Kuzniecky RI, et al. Lateralization of human temporal lobe epilepsy by 31PNMR spectroscopic imaging at 4.1 T. Neurol 1998;51:472479.
  • 10
    Urenjak J, Williams SR, Gadian DG, et al. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies different neural cell types. J Neurosci 1994;13:981989.
  • 11
    Maycox PR, Hell JW, Jahn R. Amino acid neurotransmission: spotlight on synaptic vesicles. Trends Neurosci 1990;13:8387.
  • 12
    Nichols DG. Release of glutamate, aspartate, and gamma aminobutyric acid from isolated nerve terminals. J Neurochem 1989;52:331341.
  • 13
    Pellerin L, Magistretti PJ. Glutamate uptake in astrocytes stimulates aerobic glycolysis: a mechanism coupling neuronal activity to glucose utilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91:1062510629.
  • 14
    Yu ACH, Schousboe A, Hertz L. Metabolic fate of 14C-labelled glutamate in astrocytes in primary cultures. J Neurochem 1982;39:954960.
  • 15
    Martinez-Hernandez A, Bell KP, Norenberg MD. Glutamine synthetase: glial localization in brain. Science 1977;195:13561358.
  • 16
    Sibson NR, Dhankar A, Mason GF, et al. Stoichiometric coupling of brain glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neuronal activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95:316321.
  • 17
    Petroff OA, Errante LD, Rothman DL, et al. Glutamate-glutamine cycling in the epileptic human hippocampus. Epilepsia 2002;43:703710.
  • 18
    Dennis SC, Lai JCK, Clark JB. Comparative studies on glutamate metabolism in synaptic and non-synaptic rat brain mitochondria. Biochem J 1977;164:727736.
  • 19
    McKenna MC, Sonnewald U, Huang X, et al. Exogenous glutamate concentration regulates the metabolic fate of glutamate in astrocytes. J Neurochem 1996;66:386393.
  • 20
    Hynd MR, Lewohl JM, Scott HL, et al. Biochemical and molecular studies using human autopsy brain tissue. J Neurochem 2003;85:543562.
  • 21
    Spencer DD, Spencer SS, Mattson RH, et al. Access to posterior medial temporal lobe structures in the surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurosurgery 1984;15:667671.
  • 22
    De Lanerolle NC, Kim JH, Williamson A, et al. A retrospective analysis of hippocampal pathology in human temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence for distinctive patient subcategories. Epilepsia 2003;44:677687.
  • 23
    De Lanerolle NC, Kim JH, Brines ML. Cellular and molecular alterations in partial epilepsy. Clin Neurosci 1994;2:6481.
  • 24
    De Lanerolle NC, Magge SN, Phillips MF, et al. Adaptive changes of epileptic human temporal lobe tissue: properties of neurons and glia. In: WolfP, ed. Seizures and Syndromes in Epilepsy. London : John Libbey, 1994:431448.
  • 25
    De Lanerolle NC, Brines ML, Kim JH, et al. Neurochemical remodeling of the hippocampus in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In: EngelJJr, WasterlainC, CavalheiroEA, et al., eds. Molecular Neurobiology of Epilepsy. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science, 1992:205220.
  • 26
    De Lanerolle NC, Brines ML, Williamson A, et al. Neurotransmitters and their receptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In: RibakCE, GallCM, ModyI, eds. The Dentate Gyrus and Its Role in Seizures. Amsterdam : Elsevier Science, 1992:235250.
  • 27
    Spencer SS, Schwarcz SS, Spencer DD. The treatment of epilepsy with surgery. Merrit Putnam Q 1988;5:317.
  • 28
    Spencer DD. Classifying epilepsies by substrate. Clin Neurosci 1994;2:104109.
  • 29
    Kim JH, Guimares PO, Shen MY, et al. Hippocampal neuronal density in temporal lobe epilepsy with and without gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 1990;80:4145.
  • 30
    Clark JB, Lai JCK. Glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid cycle and related enzymes in brain. Neuromethods 1989;11:233281.
  • 31
    Engel J Jr, Brown WJ, Kuhl DE, et al. Pathological findings underlying focal temporal lobe hypometabolism in partial epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1982;12:518528.
  • 32
    Knowlton RC, Abou-Khalil B, Sawrie SM, et al. In vivo hippocampal metabolic dysfunction in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 2002;59:18821886.
  • 33
    Yoon HY, Hwang SH, Kim U, et al. Decreased expression of glutamate dehydrogenase by prolonged intake of monosodium glutamate in rat brain. Exp Brain Res 2002;142:297300.
  • 34
    Zaganas I, Waagepetersen HS, Georgopoulos P, et al. Differential expression of glutamate dehydrogenase in cultured neurons and astrocytes from mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Res 2001;66:909913.
  • 35
    Aoki C, Milner TA, Sheu KF, et al. Regional distribution of astrocytes with intense immunoreactivity for glutamate dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neuron-glia interactions in glutamate transmission. J Neurosci 1987;7:22142231.
  • 36
    Plaitakis A, Spanaki C, Mastorodemos V, et al. Study of structure-function relationships in human glutamate dehydrogenases reveals novel molecular mechanisms for the regulation of the nerve tissue-specific (GLUD2) isoenzyme. Neurochem Int 2003;43:401410.
  • 37
    Cavus I, Kasoff WS, Cassaday MP, et al. Extracellular metabolites in the cortex and hippocampus of epileptic patients. Ann Neurol 2005;57:226235.
  • 38
    Eid T, Thomas MJ, Spencer DD, et al. Loss of glutamine synthetase in human epileptogenic hippocampus: a possible mechanism for raised extracellular glutamate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Lancet 2004;363:2837.
  • 39
    Mclennan H. The autoradiographic localization of L-[3H]glutamate in rat brain tissue. Brain Res 1976;115:139144.
  • 40
    Rothstein JD, Martin L, Levey AI, et al. Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters. Neuron 1994;13:713725.