• 1
    Taylor DC, Falconer MA, Bruton CJ, et al. Focal dysplasia of the cerebral cortex in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1971;34:36987.
  • 2
    Barkovich AJ, Kuzniecky RI, Jackson GD, et al. Classification system for malformations of cortical development: update 2001. Neurology 2001;57:216878.
  • 3
    Palmini A, Najm I, Avanzini G, et al. Terminology and classification of the cortical dysplasias. Neurology 2004;62(6 suppl 3):S28.
  • 4
    Lawson JA, Birchansky S, Pacheco E, et al. Distinct clinicopathologic subtypes of cortical dysplasia of Taylor. Neurology 2005;64:5561.
  • 5
    Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW, Chodkiewicz JP, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Report of thirty-nine cases. Neurosurgery 1988;23:54556.
  • 6
    Takahashi A, Hong SC, Seo DW, et al. Frequent association of cortical dysplasia in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor treated by epilepsy surgery. Surg Neurol 2005;64:41927.
  • 7
    Sakuta R, Otsubo H, Nolan MA, et al. Recurrent intractable seizures in children with cortical dysplasia adjacent to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Child Neurol 2005;20:37784.
  • 8
    Morris HH, Matkovic Z, Estes ML, et al. Ganglioglioma and intractable epilepsy: clinical and neurophysiologic features and predictors of outcome after surgery. Epilepsia 1998;39:30713.
  • 9
    Kleihues P, Cavanee WK. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the nervous system. World Health Organization classification of tumours. Lyon : LARC Press, 2000.
  • 10
    Foldvary-Schaefer N, Bautista J, Andermann F, et al. Focal malformations of cortical development. Neurology 2004;62(6 suppl 3):S14-9.
  • 11
    Raymond AA, Fish DR, Sisodiya SM, et al. Abnormalities of gyration, heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, microdysgenesis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and dysgenesis of the archicortex in epilepsy. Clinical, EEG and neuroimaging features in 100 adult patients. Brain 1995;118(Pt 3):62960.
  • 12
    Raymond AA, Fish DR. EEG features of focal malformations of cortical development. J Clin Neurophysiol 1996;13:495506.
  • 13
    Chan S, Chin SS, Nordli DR, et al. Prospective magnetic resonance imaging identification of focal cortical dysplasia, including the non-balloon cell subtype. Ann Neurol 1998;44:74957.
  • 14
    Kutsy RL. Focal extratemporal epilepsy: clinical features, EEG patterns, and surgical approach. J Neurol Sci 1999;166:115.
  • 15
    Sisodiya SM. Surgery for malformations of cortical development causing epilepsy. Brain 2000;123(Pt 6):107591.
  • 16
    Bautista JF, Foldvary-Schaefer N, Bingaman WE, et al. Focal cortical dysplasia and intractable epilepsy in adults: clinical, EEG, imaging, and surgical features. Epilepsy Res 2003;55:1316.
  • 17
    Sisodiya SM, Free SL, Stevens JM, et al. Widespread cerebral structural changes in patients with cortical dysgenesis and epilepsy. Brain 1995;118(Pt 4):103950.
  • 18
    Palmini A, Gambardella A, Andermann F, et al. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of human dysplastic cortex as suggested by corticography and surgical results. Ann Neurol 1995;37:47687.
  • 19
    Ferrier CH, Alarcon G, Engelsman J, et al. Relevance of residual histologic and electrocorticographic abnormalities for surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2001;42:36371.
  • 20
    Kirkpatrick PJ, Honavar M, Janota I, et al. Control of temporal lobe epilepsy following en bloc resection of low-grade tumors. J Neurosurg 1993;78:1925.
  • 21
    Prayson RA, Estes ML, Morris HH. Coexistence of neoplasia and cortical dysplasia in patients presenting with seizures. Epilepsia 1993;34:60915.
  • 22
    Rosenow F, Luders HO, Dinner DS, et al. Histopathological correlates of epileptogenicity as expressed by electrocorticographic spiking and seizure frequency. Epilepsia 1998;39:8506.
  • 23
    Lee DY, Chung CK, Hwang YS, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: radiological findings (including PET, SPECT, and MRS) and surgical strategy. J Neurooncol 2000;47:16774.
  • 24
    Nishio S, Morioka T, Mihara F, et al. Cerebral ganglioglioma with epilepsy: neuroimaging features and treatment. Neurosurg Rev 2001;24:149.
  • 25
    Kameyama S, Fukuda M, Tomikawa M, et al. Surgical strategy and outcomes for epileptic patients with focal cortical dysplasia or dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Epilepsia 2001;42(suppl 6):3741.
  • 26
    Seo DW, Hong SB. Epileptogenic foci on subdural recording in intractable epilepsy patients with temporal dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. J Korean Med Sci 2003;18:55965.
  • 27
    Binnie CD, Ferrier C, Alarcon G, et al. The role of intraoperative electrocorticography in cortical dysplasia. In: NajmM, FoldvaryN, eds. Cortical dysplasia and epilepsy. Pathology, diagnosis and management. Cleveland , OH : The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2000.
  • 28
    Engel J Jr., Van Ness P, Rasmussen T, et al. Outcome with respect to epileptic seizures. In: EngelJJr., ed. Surgical treatment of the epilepsies. New York : Raven Press, 1993:60921.
  • 29
    Meiners LC. Role of MR imaging in epilepsy. Eur Radiol 2002;12:499501.
  • 30
    Van Veelen CW, Debets RM, Van Huffelen AC, et al. Combined use of subdural and intracerebral electrodes in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy. Neurosurgery 1990;26:93101.
  • 31
    Leijten FS, Alpherts WC, Van Huffelen AC, et al. The effects on cognitive performance of tailored resection in surgery for nonlesional mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005;46:4319.
  • 32
    Binnie CD, Alarcon G, Elwes RD, et al. Role of ECoG in ‘en bloc’ temporal lobe resection: the Maudsley experience. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl 1998;48:1723.
  • 33
    Polkey CE, Binnie CD, Janota I. Acute hippocampal recording and pathology at temporal lobe resection and amygdalo-hippocampectomy for epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:105057.
  • 34
    Aronica E, Gorter JA, Jansen GH, et al. Expression and cell distribution of group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in taylor-type focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsia 2003;44:78595.
  • 35
    Aronica E, Leenstra S, Jansen GH, et al. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase B receptor proteins in glioneuronal tumors from patients with intractable epilepsy: colocalization with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2001;101:38392.
  • 36
    Aronica E, Yankaya B, Jansen GH, et al. Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor protein expression in glioneuronal tumours from patients with intractable epilepsy. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2001;27:22337.
  • 37
    Boonyapisit K, Najm I, Klem G, et al. Epileptogenicity of focal malformations due to abnormal cortical development: direct electrocorticographic-histopathologic correlations. Epilepsia 2003;44:6976.
  • 38
    Chassoux F, Devaux B, Landre E, et al. Stereoelectroencephalography in focal cortical dysplasia: a 3D approach to delineating the dysplastic cortex. Brain 2000;123(Pt 8):173351.
  • 39
    Morioka T, Nishio S, Ishibashi H, et al. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of focal cortical dysplasia as revealed by magnetoencephalography and electrocorticography. Epilepsy Res 1999;33:17787.
  • 40
    Raymond AA, Halpin SF, Alsanjari N, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Features in 16 patients. Brain 1994;117(Pt 3):46175.
  • 41
    Ostertun B, Wolf HK, Campos MG, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR and CT evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996;17:41930.
  • 42
    Daumas-Duport C, Varlet P, Bacha S, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: nonspecific histological forms – a study of 40 cases. J Neurooncol 1999;41:26780.
  • 43
    Jorge CL, Nagahashi-Marie SK, Pedreira CC, et al. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with temporal lobe tumors and epilepsy. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2000;58:10028.
  • 44
    Aronica E, Leenstra S, Van Veelen CW, et al. Glioneuronal tumors and medically intractable epilepsy: a clinical study with long-term follow-up of seizure outcome after surgery. Epilepsy Res 2001;43:17991.
  • 45
    Ildan F, Tuna M, Gocer IA, et al. Intracerebral ganglioglioma: clinical and radiological study of eleven surgically treated cases with follow-up. Neurosurg Rev 2001;24:1148.
  • 46
    Blumcke I, Wiestler OD. Gangliogliomas: an intriguing tumor entity associated with focal epilepsies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002;61:57584.
  • 47
    Oishi M, Otsubo H, Kameyama S, et al. Epileptic spikes: magnetoencephalography versus simultaneous electrocorticography. Epilepsia 2002;43:13905.
  • 48
    Luyken C, Blumcke I, Fimmers R, et al. The spectrum of long-term epilepsy-associated tumors: long-term seizure and tumor outcome and neurosurgical aspects. Epilepsia 2003;44:82230.
  • 49
    Jasper HH. Electrocorticograms in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1949;2:1629.
  • 50
    Rasmussen T. Characteristics of a pure culture of frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1983;24:48293.
  • 51
    Wennberg R, Quesney F, Olivier A, et al. Electrocorticography and outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998;106:35768.
  • 52
    Guerreiro MM, Quesney LF, Salanova V, et al. Continuous electrocorticogram epileptiform discharges due to brain gliosis. J Clin Neurophysiol 2003;20:23942.
  • 53
    Robain O. Introduction to the pathology of cerebral cortical dysplasia. Dysplasias of cerebral cortex and epilepsy. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven, 1996:19.
  • 54
    Marusic P, Najm IM, Ying Z, et al. Focal cortical dysplasias in eloquent cortex: functional characteristics and correlation with MRI and histopathologic changes. Epilepsia 2002;43:2732.
  • 55
    Cepeda C, Andre VM, Flores-Hernandez J, et al. Pediatric cortical dysplasia: correlations between neuroimaging, electrophysiology and location of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells and glutamate/GABA synaptic circuits. Dev Neurosci 2005;27:5976.
  • 56
    Cepeda C, Hurst RS, Flores-Hernandez J, et al. Morphological and electrophysiological characterization of abnormal cell types in pediatric cortical dysplasia. J Neurosci Res 2003;72:47286.
  • 57
    Bothwell S, Meredith GE, Phillips J, et al. Neuronal hypertrophy in the neocortex of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 2001;21:4789800.