SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adachi N, Kanemoto K, Muramatsu R, Kato M, Akanuma N, Ito M, Kawasaki J, Onuma T. (2005) Intellectual prognosis of status epilepticus in adult epilepsy patients: analysis with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-revised. Epilepsia 46:15021509.
  • Aicardi J, Chevrie JJ. (1970) Convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children. A study of 239 cases. Epilepsia 11:187197.
  • Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, Kurland LT. (1987) Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 316:493498.
  • Arzimanoglou A, Guerrini R, Aicardi J. (2004) Status epilepticus. In ArzimanoglouA, GuerriniR, AicardiJ (Eds), Aicardi's epilepsy in children. Lippincot Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia , pp. 241261.
  • Augustijn PB, Parra J, Wouters CH, Joosten P, Lindhout D, Van Emde BW. (2001) Ring chromosome 20 epilepsy syndrome in children: electroclinical features. Neurology 57:11081111.
  • Barnard C, Wirrell E. (1999) Does status epilepticus in children cause developmental deterioration and exacerbation of epilepsy? J Child Neurol 14:787794.
  • Ben-Ari Y, Holmes GL. (2006) Effects of seizures on developmental processes in the immature brain. Lancet Neurol 5:10551063.
  • Berg AT, Shinnar S. (1991) The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review. Neurology 41:965972.
  • Berg AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, Testa FM. (1999a) Childhood-onset epilepsy with and without preceding febrile seizures. Neurology 53:17421748.
  • Berg AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, Testa FM. (1999b) Status epilepticus in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Ann Neurol 45:618623.
  • Berg AT, Shinnar S, Testa FM, Levy SR, Frobish D, Smith SN, Beckerman B. (2004) Status epilepticus after the initial diagnosis of epilepsy in children. Neurology 63:10271034.
  • Blume WT, Luders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, Van Emde BW, Engel J Jr. (2001) Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 42:12121218.
  • Brenner RP. (2002) Is it status? Epilepsia 43(Suppl 3):103113.
  • Buono RJ, Ferraro TN, O'Connor MJ, Sperling MR, Ryan SG, Scattergood T, Mulholland N, Gilmore J, Lohoff FW, Berrettini WH. (2001) Lack of association between an interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) gene variation and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 42:782784.
  • Camfield P, Camfield C, Gordon K, Dooley J. (1994) What types of epilepsy are preceded by febrile seizures? A population-based study of children. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:887892.
  • Cendes F, Andermann F, Dubeau F, Gloor P, Evans A, Jones-Gotman M, Olivier A, Andermann E, Robitaille Y, Lopes-Cendes I. (1993) Early childhood prolonged febrile convulsions, atrophy and sclerosis of mesial structures, and temporal lobe epilepsy: an MRI volumetric study. Neurology 43:10831087.
  • Chen JW, Wasterlain CG. (2006) Status epilepticus: pathophysiology and management in adults. Lancet Neurol 5:246256.
  • Chin RF, Neville BG, Scott RC. (2004a) A systematic review of the epidemiology of status epilepticus. Eur J Neurol 11:800810.
  • Chin RF, Verhulst L, Neville BG, Peters MJ, Scott RC. (2004b) Inappropriate emergency management of status epilepticus in children contributes to need for intensive care. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:15841588.
  • Chin RF, Neville BG, Scott RC. (2005) Meningitis is a common cause of convulsive status epilepticus with fever. Arch Dis Child 90:6669.
  • Chin RF, Neville BG, Peckham C, Bedford H, Wade A, Scott RC. (2006a) Incidence, cause, and short-term outcome of convulsive status epilepticus in childhood: prospective population-based study. Lancet 368(9531):222229.
  • Chin RF, Neville BG, Peckham C, Bedford H, Wade A, Scott RC, for the NLSTEPSS Collaborative Group. (2006b) Socioeconomic deprivation independent of ethnicity increases the risk of convulsive status epilepticus in childhood. Epilepsia 47(Suppl. 3): 7.
  • Coeytaux A, Jallon P, Galobardes B, Morabia A. (2000) Incidence of status epilepticus in French-speaking Switzerland: (EPISTAR). Neurology 55:693697.
  • Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. (1993) Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Epilepsia 34:592596.
  • Corey LA, Pellock JM, Boggs JG, Miller LL, DeLorenzo RJ. (1998) Evidence for a genetic predisposition for status epilepticus. Neurology 50:558560.
  • Corey LA, Pellock JM, DeLorenzo RJ. (2004) Status epilepticus in a population-based Virginia twin sample. Epilepsia 45:159165.
  • De Bittencourt PR, Adamolekum B, Bharucha N, Carpio A, Cossio OH, Danesi MA, Dumas M, Meinardi H, Ordinario A, Senanayake N, Shakir R, Sotelo J. (1996) Epilepsy in the tropics: I. Epidemiology, socioeconomic risk factors, and etiology. Epilepsia 37:11211127.
  • DeLorenzo RJ, Hauser WA, Towne AR, Boggs JG, Pellock JM, Penberthy L, Garnett L, Fortner CA, Ko D. (1996) A prospective, population-based epidemiologic study of status epilepticus in Richmond, Virginia. Neurology 46:10291035.
  • Dodrill CB, Wilensky AJ. (1990) Intellectual impairment as an outcome of status epilepticus. Neurology 40(5 Suppl 2):2327.
  • Dube C, Chen K, Eghbal-Ahmadi M, Brunson K, Soltesz I, Baram TZ. (2000) Prolonged febrile seizures in the immature rat model enhance hippocampal excitability long term. Ann Neurol 47:336344.
  • Engel J Jr. (2001) A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia 42:796803.
  • Eriksson KJ, Koivikko MJ. (1997) Status epilepticus in children: aetiology, treatment, and outcome. Dev Med Child Neurol 39:652658.
  • Everitt AD, Sander JW. (1998) Incidence of epilepsy is now higher in elderly people than children. BMJ 316:780.
  • Forsgren L, Hauser WA, Olafsson E, Sander JW, Sillanpaa M, Tomson T. (2005) Mortality of epilepsy in developed countries: a review. Epilepsia 46(Suppl 11):1827.
  • Fujiwara T, Ishida S, Miyakoshi M, Sakuma N, Moriyama S, Morikawa T, Seino M, Wada T. (1979) Status epilepticus in childhood: a retrospective study of initial convulsive status and subsequent epilepsies. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 33:337344.
  • Gambardella A, Manna I, Labate A, Chifari R, Serra P, La RA, LePiane E, Cittadella R, Andreoli V, Sasanelli F, Zappia M, Aguglia U, Quattrone A. (2003) Prodynorphin gene promoter polymorphism and temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 44:12551256.
  • Garzon E, Fernandes RM, Sakamoto AC. (2003) Analysis of clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in human status epilepticus. Seizure 12:337345.
  • Gastaut H. (1983) Classification of status epilepticus. Adv Neurol 34:1535.
  • Grimes DA, Schulz KF. (2002) An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land. Lancet 359:5761.
  • Hauser WA. (1983) Status epilepticus: frequency, etiology, and neurological sequelae. Adv Neurol 34:314.
  • Hauser WA, Anderson VE, Loewenson RB, McRoberts SM. (1982) Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure. N Engl J Med 307:522528.
  • Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. (1993) Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935–1984. Epilepsia 34:453468.
  • Haut SR, Veliskova J, Moshe SL. (2004) Susceptibility of immature and adult brains to seizure effects. Lancet Neurol 3:608617.
  • Haut SR, Shinnar S, Moshe SL. (2005) Seizure clustering: risks and outcomes. Epilepsia 46:146149.
  • Heils A, Haug K, Kunz WS, Fernandez G, Horvath S, Rebstock J, Propping P, Elger CE. (2000) Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphism and susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Ann Neurol 48:948950.
  • Hesdorffer D, Hauser WA, Cascino G. (1995) Risk of and predictors for status epilepticus in epilepsy. Epilepsia 36(Suppl 4):149149.
  • Hesdorffer DC, Logroscino G, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. (1998) Incidence of status epilepticus in Rochester, Minnesota, 1965–1984. Neurology 50:735741.
  • ILAE Commission Report. (1997) The epidemiology of the epilepsies: future directions. International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 38:614618.
  • Jin L, Jia Y, Zhang B, Xu Q, Fan Y, Wu L, Shen Y. (2003) Association analysis of a polymorphism of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene with temporal lobe epilepsy in a Chinese population. Epilepsia 44:13061309.
  • Kanemoto K, Kawasaki J, Miyamoto T, Obayashi H, Nishimura M. (2000) Interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 47:571574.
  • Kanemoto K, Kawasaki J, Yuasa S, Kumaki T, Tomohiro O, Kaji R, Nishimura M. (2003) Increased frequency of interleukin-1beta-511 T allele in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis, and prolonged febrile convulsion. Epilepsia 44:796799.
  • Kapur J, Stringer JL, Lothman EW. (1989) Evidence that repetitive seizures in the hippocampus cause a lasting reduction of GABAergic inhibition. J Neurophysiol 61:417426.
  • Knake S, Rosenow F, Vescovi M, Oertel WH, Mueller HH, Wirbatz A, Katsarou N, Hamer HM. (2001) Incidence of status epilepticus in adults in Germany: a prospective, population-based study. Epilepsia 42:714718.
  • Knake S, Rochon J, Fleischer S, Katsarou N, Back T, Vescovi M, Oertel WH, Reis J, Hamer HM, Rosenow F. (2006) Status epilepticus after stroke is associated with increased long-term case fatality. Epilepsia 47:20202026.
  • Knowles RL, Smith A, Lynn R, Rahi JS. (2006) Using multiple sources to improve and measure case ascertainment in surveillance studies: 20 years of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. J Public Health 28:157165.
  • Kramer U, Shorer Z, Ben-Zeev B, Lerman-Sagie T, Goldberg-Stern H, Lahat E. (2005) Severe refractory status epilepticus owing to presumed encephalitis. J Child Neurol 20:184187.
  • Lahat E, Goldman M, Barr J, Bistritzer T, Berkovitch M. (2000) Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating febrile seizures in children: prospective randomised study. BMJ 321:8386.
  • Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC. (2005) Methodologic issues in studies of mortality following epilepsy: measures, types of studies, sources of cases, cohort effects, and competing risks. Epilepsia 46(Suppl 11):37.
  • Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. (1997) Short-term mortality after a first episode of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 38:13441349.
  • Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino G, Annegers JF, Hauser WA. (2001) Time trends in incidence, mortality, and case-fatality after first episode of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 42:10311035.
  • Logroscino G, Hesdorffer DC, Cascino GD, Annegers JF, Bagiella E, Hauser WA. (2002) Long-term mortality after a first episode of status epilepticus. Neurology 58:537541.
  • Lowenstein DH, Bleck T, Macdonald RL. (1999) It's time to revise the definition of status epilepticus. Epilepsia 40:120122.
  • Maytal J, Shinnar S, Moshe SL, Alvarez LA. (1989) Low morbidity and mortality of status epilepticus in children. Pediatrics 83:323331.
  • Mazarati AM, Baldwin RA, Sankar R, Wasterlain CG. (1998) Time-dependent decrease in the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs during the course of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Brain Res 814:179185.
  • Mbodj I, Ndiaye M, Sene F, Salif SP, Sow HD, Diagana M, Pierre NI, Gallo DA. (2000) Treatment of status epilepticus in a developing country. Neurophysiol Clin 30:165169.
  • McIntyre J, Robertson S, Norris E, Appleton R, Whitehouse WP, Phillips B, Martland T, Berry K, Collier J, Smith S, Choonara I. (2005) Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366(9481):205210.
  • Moshe SL, Garant D, Sperber EF, Veliskova J, Kubova H, Brown LL. (1995) Ontogeny and topography of seizure regulation by the substantia nigra. Brain Develop 17(Suppl):6172.
  • Murakami N, Ohno S, Oka E, Tanaka A. (1996) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. Epilepsia 37(Suppl 3):5256.
  • Nabbout R, Dulac O. (2003) Epileptic encephalopathies: a brief overview. J Clin Neurophysiol 20:393397.
  • Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. (1978) Prognosis in children with febrile seizures. Pediatrics 61:720727.
  • Novak G, Maytal J, Alshansky A, Ascher C. (1997) Risk factors for status epilepticus in children with symptomatic epilepsy. Neurology 49:533537.
  • Ozkara C, Uzan M, Tanriverdi T, Baykara O, Ekinci B, Yeni N, Kafadar A, Buyru N. (2006) Lack of association between IL-1beta/alpha gene polymorphisms and temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Seizure 15:288291.
  • Rahi JS, Dezateux C. (1999) Capture-recapture analysis of ascertainment by active surveillance in the British Congenital Cataract Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:236239.
  • Raspall-Chaure M, Chin RF, Neville BG, Scott RC. (2006) Outcome of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 5:769779.
  • Sahin M, Menache CC, Holmes GL, Riviello JJ. (2001) Outcome of severe refractory status epilepticus in children. Epilepsia 42:14611467.
  • Sander JW, Shorvon SD. (1996) Epidemiology of the epilepsies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 61:433443.
  • Scott RC, Besag FM, Neville BG. (1999) Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: a randomised trial. Lancet 353:623626.
  • Scott RC, Gadian DG, King MD, Chong WK, Cox TC, Neville BG, Connelly A. (2002) Magnetic resonance imaging findings within 5 days of status epilepticus in childhood. Brain 125(Pt 9):19511959.
  • Scott RC, King MD, Gadian DG, Neville BG, Connelly A. (2003) Hippocampal abnormalities after prolonged febrile convulsion: a longitudinal MRI study. Brain 126(Pt 11):25512557.
  • Shinnar S, Maytal J, Krasnoff L, Moshe SL. (1992) Recurrent status epilepticus in children. Ann Neurol 31:598604.
  • Shinnar S, Pellock JM, Moshe SL, Maytal J, O'Dell C, Driscoll SM, Alemany M, Newstein D, DeLorenzo RJ. (1997) In whom does status epilepticus occur: age-related differences in children. Epilepsia 38:907914.
  • Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe SL, Shinnar R. (2001a) How long do new-onset seizures in children last? Ann Neurol 49:659664.
  • Shinnar S, Pellock JM, Berg AT, O'Dell C, Driscoll SM, Maytal J, Moshe SL, DeLorenzo RJ. (2001b) Short-term outcomes of children with febrile status epilepticus. Epilepsia 42:4753.
  • Sillanpaa M, Shinnar S. (2002) Status epilepticus in a population-based cohort with childhood-onset epilepsy in Finland. Ann Neurol 52:303310.
  • Standley CA, Mason BA, Cotton DB. (1995) Differential regulation of seizure activity in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:11601165.
  • Stephenson JB. (2006) Childhood convulsive status epilepticus. Lancet 368:13271328.
  • Stogmann E, Zimprich A, Baumgartner C, Aull-Watschinger S, Hollt V, Zimprich F. (2002) A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene promotor is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 51:260263.
  • Tabarki B, Yacoub M, Selmi H, Oubich F, Barsaoui S, Essoussi AS. (2001) Infantile status epilepticus in Tunisia. Clinical, etiological and prognostic aspects. Seizure 10:365369.
  • Tan NC, Mulley JC, Berkovic SF. (2004) Genetic association studies in epilepsy: “the truth is out there.” Epilepsia 45:14291442.
  • Tarkka R, Paakko E, Pyhtinen J, Uhari M, Rantala H. (2003) Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis: no association in a long-term follow-up study. Neurology 60:215218.
  • Tilgen N, Rebstock J, Horvath S, Propping P, Elger CE, Heils A. (2003) Prodynorphin gene promoter polymorphism and temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 53:280281.
  • Towne AR, Pellock JM, Ko D, DeLorenzo RJ. (1994) Determinants of mortality in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 35:2734.
  • VanLandingham KE, Heinz ER, Cavazos JE, Lewis DV. (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal injury after prolonged focal febrile convulsions. Ann Neurol 43:413426.
  • Verity CM, Ross EM, Golding J. (1993) Outcome of childhood status epilepticus and lengthy febrile convulsions: findings of national cohort study. BMJ 307:225228.
  • Vignatelli L, Tonon C, D'Alessandro R. (2003) Incidence and short-term prognosis of status epilepticus in adults in Bologna, Italy. Epilepsia 44:964968.
  • Walker M, Cross H, Smith S, Young C, Aicardi J, Appleton R, Aylett S, Besag F, Cock H, Delorenzo R, Drislane F, Duncan J, Ferrie C, Fujikawa D, Gray W, Kaplan P, Koutroumanidis M, O'regan M, Plouin P, Sander J, Scott R, Shorvon S, Treiman D, Wasterlain C, Wieshmann U. (2005) Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: Epilepsy Research Foundation Workshop Reports. Epileptic Disord 7:253296.
  • Waterhouse EJ, Vaughan JK, Barnes TY, Boggs JG, Towne AR, Kopec-Garnett L, DeLorenzo RJ. (1998) Synergistic effect of status epilepticus and ischemic brain injury on mortality. Epilepsy Res 29:175183.
  • Waterhouse EJ, Garnett LK, Towne AR, Morton LD, Barnes T, Ko D, DeLorenzo RJ. (1999) Prospective population-based study of intermittent and continuous convulsive status epilepticus in Richmond, Virginia. Epilepsia 40:752758.
  • Wu YW, Shek DW, Garcia PA, Zhao S, Johnston SC. (2002) Incidence and mortality of generalized convulsive status epilepticus in California. Neurology 58:10701076.