Shared equally in first authorship.
Focal Increases in Perfusion and Decreases in Hemoglobin Oxygenation Precede Seizure Onset in Spontaneous Human Epilepsy
Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2007
Volume 48, Issue 11, pages 2059–2067, November 2007
How to Cite
Zhao, M., Suh, M., Ma, H., Perry, C., Geneslaw, A. and Schwartz, T. H. (2007), Focal Increases in Perfusion and Decreases in Hemoglobin Oxygenation Precede Seizure Onset in Spontaneous Human Epilepsy. Epilepsia, 48: 2059–2067. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01229.x
- Issue online: 30 JUL 2007
- Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2007
- Accepted May 27, 2007; Online Early publication July 30, 2007.
- Intraoperative optical imaging;
Purpose: Optical recording of intrinsic signals provides the highest combined spatial and temporal resolution with broad spatial sampling for measuring cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygenation in cerebral cortex. Few opportunities arise to apply this laboratory method to record spontaneous seizures in unanesthetized human brain during neurosurgery. We report such a rare opportunity in a man with recurrent focal epilepsy arising from a cavernous malformation.
Methods: We recorded intrinsic optical signals (IOS) from human cortex intraoperatively during spontaneous seizures arising from brain surrounding a small cavernous malformation in an awake patient using only local anesthesia with simultaneous electrocorticography. The IOS was recorded at two wavelengths, one an isosbestic point for hemoglobin to measure CBV (570 nm) and the other at a wavelength more sensitive to deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hbr) (610 nm). A modified Beer-Lambert calculation was used on two separate but similar seizures to approximate changes in Hbr, CBV as well as oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2).
Results: Electrographically recorded seizures (n = 3) elicited a focal increase in both Hbr and CBV that lasted for the duration of the seizure, indicating that perfusion was inadequate to meet metabolic demand. Remarkably, these hemodynamic changes preceded the onset of the seizures by ∼20 s and occurred focally over the known location of the lesion and the seizure onsets.
Discussion: These findings demonstrate that the hemoglobin becomes deoxygenated in spite of large increase in CBV during spontaneous human focal seizures and that optically recorded hemodynamic events can be used both to predict and localize human focal epilepsy. Such data may someday be useful to assist in the presurgical evaluation of patients considered for epilepsy surgery and to predict the timing and location of seizure onsets.