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Keywords:

  • Eyelid myoclonia;
  • Eyelid myoclonia with absences;
  • Epilepsy;
  • Myoclonus;
  • Photosensitivity

Summary

Eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA), or Jeavons syndrome, is a generalized epileptic condition clinically characterized by eyelid myoclonia (EM) with or without absences, eye closure-induced electroencephalography (EEG) paroxysms, and photosensitivity; in addition, rare tonic–clonic seizures may also occur. Although first described in 1977 and widely reported by several authors within the last few years, EMA has not been yet recognized as a definite epileptic syndrome. However, when strict criteria are applied to the diagnosis, EMA appears to be a distinctive condition that could be considered a myoclonic epileptic syndrome, with myoclonia limited to the eyelids, rather than an epileptic syndrome with absences.