SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abend NS, Florance N, Finkel RS, Licht DJ, Dlugos DJ. (2008) Intravenous levetiracetam terminates refractory focal status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 10:8386
  • Agarwal P, Kumar N, Chandra R, Gupta G, Antony AR, Garg N. (2007) Randomized study of intravenous valproate and phenytoin in status epilepticus. Seizure 16:527532.
  • Alldredge BK, Gelb AM, Isaacs SM, Corry MD, Allen F, Ulrich S, Gottwald MD, O’Neil N, Neuhaus JM, Segal MR, Lowenstein DH. (2001) A comparison of lorazepam, diazepam, and placebo for the treatment of out-of-hospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med 345:631637.
  • Altenmuller DM, Kuhn A, Surges R, Schulze-Bonhage A. (2008) Termination of absence status epilepticus by low-dose intravenous levetiracetam. Epilepsia 49:12891290.
  • Carter C. (1958) Use of parenteral diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) sodium in control of status epilepticus. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 79:136137.
  • Cranford RE, Leppik IE, Patrick B, Anderson CB, Kostick B. (1978) Intravenous phenytoin: clinical and pharmacokinetic aspects. Neurology 28:874880.
  • Cranford RE, Leppik IE, Patrick B, Anderson CB, Kostick B. (1979) Intravenous phenytoin in acute treatment of seizures. Neurology 29:14741479.
  • Delorenzo RJ, Garnett LK, Towne AR, Waterhouse EJ, Boggs JG, Morton L, Choudhry MA, Barnes T, Ko D. (1999) Comparison of status epilepticus with prolonged seizure episodes lasting from 10 to 29 minutes. Epilepsia 40:164169.
  • Embacher N, Karner E, Wanschitz J, Beer R, Trinka E. (2006) Acute encephalopathy after intravenous administration of valproate in non-convulsive status epilepticus. Eur J Neurol 13:e5e6.
  • Farooq MU, Naravetla B, Majid A, Gupta R, Pysh JJ, Kassab MY. (2007) IV levetiracetam in the management of non-convulsive status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care 7:3639.
  • Gibbs JE, Walker MC, Cock HR. (2006) Levetiracetam: antiepileptic properties and protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental status epilepticus. Epilepsia 47:469478.
  • Goraya JS, Khurana DS, Valencia I, Melvin JJ, Cruz M, Legido A, Kothare SV. (2008) Intravenous levetiracetam in children with epilepsy. Pediatr Neurol 38:177180.
  • Knake S, Gruener J, Hattemer K, Klein KM, Bauer S, Oertel WH, Hamer HM, Rosenow F. (2007) Intravenous levetiracetam in the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:588589.
  • Kramer G, Bergmann A, Deshpande LS, König S, Kurth C, Kurlemann G, Loscher W, Luef G, Meierkord H, Noachtar S, Pohlmann-Eden B, Rosenow F, Ruegg SJ, Runge U, Schmidt D, Schmitt B, Siegel A, Stefan H, Stodieck SR, Tauboll E, Trinka E, Uberall M. (2005) Current place of intravenous valproic acid in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus. Aktuelle Neurologie 32:263274. Ref Type: Journal (Full)
  • Kurthen M, Jantzen RWC, Lerche H, Schmidt D, Schneider D, Stefan H, Steinhoff BJ, Trinka E, Wieser HG. (2008) Status epilepticus im Erwachsenenalter. In DienerH-C, PutzkiN (Eds) Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie, 4th ed. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 1728.
  • Leppik IE, Patrick BK, Cranford RE. (1983) Treatment of acute seizures and status epilepticus with intravenous phenytoin. Adv Neurol 34:447451.
  • Limdi NA, Faught E. (2000) The safety of rapid valproic acid infusion. Epilepsia 41:13421345.
  • Limdi NA, Shimpi AV, Faught E, Gomez CR, Burneo JG. (2005) Efficacy of rapid IV administration of valproic acid for status epilepticus. Neurology 64:353355.
  • Limdi NA, Knowlton RK, Cofield SS, Ver Hoef LW, Paige AL, Dutta S, Faught E. (2007) Safety of rapid intravenous loading of valproate. Epilepsia 48:478483.
  • McWilliam PKA. (1958) Intravenous phenytoin sodium in continuous convulsions in children. Lancet 2:11471149.
  • Mehta V, Singhi P, Singhi S. (2007) Intravenous sodium valproate versus diazepam infusion for the control of refractory status epilepticus in children: a randomized controlled trial. J Child Neurol 22:11911197.
  • Meierkord H, Boon P, Engelsen B, Gocke K, Shorvon S, Tinuper P, Holtkamp M. (2006) EFNS guideline on the management of status epilepticus. Eur J Neurol 13:445450.
  • Minicucci F, Muscas G, Perucca E, Capovilla G, Vigevano F, Tinuper P. (2006) Treatment of status epilepticus in adults: guidelines of the Italian League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 47(suppl 5):915.
  • Misra UK, Kalita J, Patel R. (2006) Sodium valproate vs phenytoin in status epilepticus: a pilot study. Neurology 67:340342.
  • Prasad K, Al Roomi K, Krishnan PR, Sequeira R. (2005) Anticonvulsant therapy for status epilepticus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Oct 19;(4):CD003723.
  • Prasad K, Krishnan PR, Al Roomi K, Sequeira R. (2007) Anticonvulsant therapy for status epilepticus. Br J Clin Pharmacol 63:640647.
  • Ramael S, Daoust A, Otoul C, Toublanc N, Troenaru M, Lu ZS, Stockis A. (2006a) Levetiracetam intravenous infusion: a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and pharmacokinetic study. Epilepsia 47:11281135.
  • Ramael S, De Smedt F, Toublanc N, Otoul C, Boulanger P, Riethuisen JM, Stockis A. (2006b) Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects. Clin Ther 28:734744.
  • Rossetti AO. (2007) Sodium valproate vs phenytoin in status epilepticus: a pilot study. Neurology 68:709.
  • Ruegg S, Naegelin Y, Hardmeier M, Winkler DT, Marsch S, Fuhr P. (2008) Intravenous levetiracetam: treatment experience with the first 50 critically ill patients. Epilepsy Behav 12:477480.
  • Schulze-Bonhage A, Hefft S, Oehl B. (2007) Termination of complex partial status epilepticus by intravenous levetiracetam - a case report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:931933
  • Serrano-Castro PJ, Casado-Chocan JL, Mercade-Cerda JM, Altuzarra-Corral A, Rufo-Campos M, Moreno-Alegre V, Ramos-Lizana J, Pita-Calandre E, Galan-Barranco JM, Camino-Leon R, Sanchez-Alvarez JC. (2005) The Andalusia Epilepsy Society’s Guide to Epilepsy Therapy 2005: III. Antiepileptic therapy in special situations. Rev Neurol 40:683695.
  • Shaner DM, McCurdy SA, Herring MO, Gabor AJ. (1988) Treatment of status epilepticus: a prospective comparison of diazepam and phenytoin versus phenobarbital and optional phenytoin. Neurology 38:202207.
  • Shorvon S, Baulac M, Cross H, Trinka E, Walker M. (2008) The drug treatment of status epilepticus in Europe: consensus document from a workshop at the first London Colloquium on Status Epilepticus. Epilepsia 49:12771285.
  • Sinha S, Naritoku DK. (2000) Intravenous valproate is well tolerated in unstable patients with status epilepticus. Neurology 55:722724.
  • Surges R, Volynski KE, Walker MC. (2008) Is levetiracetam different from other antiepileptic drugs? Levetiracetam its cellular mechanism of action in epilepsy revisited Therap Adv Neurol Dis 1:1324.
  • Towne AR, Pellock JM, Ko D, Delorenzo RJ. (1994) Determinants of mortality in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 35:2734.
  • Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, Collins JF, Colling C, Rowan AJ, Handforth A, Faught E, Calabrese VP, Uthman BM, Ramsay RE, Mamdani MB. (1998) A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. N Engl J Med 339:792798.
  • Trinka E. (2007a) Emergencies in Epilepsy: what must and must not be done. Nervenheilkunde 26:981992.
  • Trinka E. (2007b) The use of valproate and new antiepileptic drugs in status epilepticus. Epilepsia 48:4951.
  • Trinka E. (2009) Benzodiazepines used primarily for emergency treatment (Diazepam, Lorazepam, and Midazolam). In ShorvonSD, PeruccaE, EngelJJr. (Eds) Treatment of epilepsies, 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 470484.
  • Trinka E, Dobesberger J. (2009) New treatment options in status epilepticus: a critical review on levetiracetam. Therap Adv Neurol Dis 2:7991.
  • Van Rijckevorsel K, Boon P, Hauman H, Legros B, Ossemanns M, Sadzot B, Schmedding E, Van Zandijcke M. (2005) Standards of care for adults with convulsive status epilepticus: Belgian consensus recommendations. Acta Neurol Belg 105:111118.
  • Venkataraman V, Wheless JW. (1999) Safety of rapid intravenous infusion of valproate loading doses in epilepsy patients. Epilepsy Res 35:147153.
  • Von Albeert H-H (1983) A new phenytoin infusion concentrate for status epilepticus. In Delgado-EscuetaAV, WasterlainCG, TreimanDM, PorterRJ. (Eds) Status epilepticus: mechanisms of brain damage and treatment. Advances in Neurology, Vol. 34. Raven Press, New York, pp. 453456.
  • Wallis W, Kutt H, McDowell F. (1968) Intravenous diphenyl hydantoin treatment of acute repetitive seizures. Neurology 18:513525.
  • Wheless JW, Vazquez BR, Kanner AM, Ramsay RE, Morton L, Pellock JM. (2004) Rapid infusion with valproate sodium is well tolerated in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 63:15071508.
  • Wilder BJ, Ramsay RE, Willmore LJ, Feussner GF, Perchalski RJ, Shumate JB Jr. (1977) Efficacy of intravenous phenytoin in the treatment of status epilepticus: kinetics of central nervous system penetration. Ann Neurol 1:511518.