FULL-LENGTH ORIGINAL RESEARCH
A new locus for autosomal dominant generalized epilepsy associated with mild mental retardation on chromosome 3p
Article first published online: 11 APR 2011
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy
Volume 52, Issue 5, pages 993–999, May 2011
How to Cite
Blair, M. A., Abou-Khalil, B., Crunk, A., Haines, J. L. and Hedera, P. (2011), A new locus for autosomal dominant generalized epilepsy associated with mild mental retardation on chromosome 3p. Epilepsia, 52: 993–999. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03059.x
- Issue published online: 11 MAY 2011
- Article first published online: 11 APR 2011
- Accepted February 8, 2011; Early View publication April 11, 2011.
- Idiopathic generalized epilepsy;
- Mental retardation;
- Chromosome 3;
- Linkage analysis;
Purpose: Generalized epilepsies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndromes. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), which has a strong genetic background, is not associated with any additional clinical features, such as mental retardation (MR). Herein we report results of linkage analysis in a large family with autosomal dominant (AD) generalized epilepsy associated with MR.
Methods: We identified a four-generation kindred with several affected members with generalized epilepsy without any evidence for secondary causes. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were reviewed when available. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis.
Key Findings: Fourteen individuals were classified as affected and an additional three were considered as nonpenetrant obligatory carriers. Thirteen affected individual had a history of generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and absence seizures were reported in nine affected individuals. There was no history of preceding febrile seizures. MR was present in nine affected individuals with epilepsy but the other affected individuals had normal intelligence. Neuroimaging did not reveal any structural abnormalities and EEG studies were consistent with IGE rather than symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Genetic analysis detected a group of markers with logarithmic (base 10) of odds (LOD) score >3 on chromosome 3p spanning a 5.5 Mbp region. Sequencing of several candidate genes, including dynein light chain-A, golgin subfamily a4, leucine rich repeat (in FLII) interacting gene, serine/threonine-protein kinase DCAMKL3 (doublecortin- like and CAM kinase-like 3), laforin (EPM2A) interacting protein 1 (EPM2AIP1, programmed cell death 6 interacting protein, and CLIP-associating protein 2 (cytoplasmic linker-associated protein 2) (hOrbit2) genes did not identify the disease-causing mutations.
Significance: We report the identification of a genetic locus for generalized epilepsy associated with MR on chromosome 3p. Affected individuals have a form of genetic epilepsy with generalized seizures variably associated with MR. Despite the presence of MR in several affected patients, epilepsy phenotype was not fully consistent with symptomatic epilepsy and suggests a biologic continuum between symptomatic epilepsies and IGE.