• Epileptogenic zone;
  • Epileptogenesis;
  • Computerized analysis;
  • Seizure onset zone;
  • Ictogenesis;
  • High-frequency oscillations


Purpose: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs), termed ripples at 80–200 Hz and fast ripples (FRs) at >200/250 Hz, recorded by intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), may be a valuable surrogate marker for the localization of the epileptogenic zone. We evaluated the relationship of the resection of focal brain regions containing high-rate interictal HFOs and the seizure-onset zone (SOZ) determined by visual EEG analysis with the postsurgical seizure outcome, using extraoperative intracranial EEG monitoring in pediatric patients and automated HFO detection.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 28 pediatric epilepsy patients who underwent extraoperative intracranial video-EEG monitoring prior to focal resection. Utilizing the automated analysis, we identified interictal HFOs during 20 min of sleep EEG and determined the brain regions containing high-rate HFOs. We investigated spatial relationships between regions with high-rate HFOs and SOZs. We compared the size of these regions, the surgical resection, and the amount of the regions with high-rate HFOs/SOZs within the resection area with seizure outcome.

Key Findings: Ten patients were completely seizure-free and 18 were not at 2 years after surgery. The brain regions with high-rate ripples were larger than those with high-rate FRs (p = 0.0011) with partial overlap. More complete resection of the regions with high-rate FRs significantly correlated with a better seizure outcome (p = 0.046). More complete resection of the regions with high-rate ripples tended to improve seizure outcome (p = 0.091); however, the resection of SOZ did not influence seizure outcome (p = 0.18). The size of surgical resection was not associated with seizure outcome (p = 0.22–0.39).

Significance: The interictal high-rate FRs are a possible surrogate marker of the epileptogenic zone. Interictal ripples are not as specific a marker of the epileptogenic zone as interictal FRs. Resection of the brain regions with high-rate interictal FRs in addition to the SOZ may achieve a better seizure outcome.