Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of once-daily doses of perampanel 8 and 12 mg when added to 1–3 concomitantly administered, approved antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures.
Methods: Study 305 was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients aged 12 years and older with ongoing seizures despite prior therapy with at least two AEDs, and currently receiving 1–3 AEDs. Equal randomization to once-daily oral perampanel 8 or 12 mg, or placebo was performed. Patients entered a 19-week double-blind treatment phase comprising a 6-week titration period, with weekly 2-mg dose increments, followed by a 13-week maintenance period. Primary efficacy end points were the responder rate (proportion of patients who had a ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency during treatment per 28 days relative to baseline), and the percent change in seizure frequency per 28 days relative to pre-perampanel baseline. A secondary end point was percent change in the frequency of complex partial plus secondarily generalized seizures. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study.
Key Findings: Three hundred eighty-six patients were randomized and treated with study medication. Of these, 321 patients completed the study. The 50% responder rates (intent-to-treat analysis) were 14.7%, 33.3%, and 33.9%, respectively, for placebo, perampanel 8 mg, and perampanel 12 mg, with significant improvements over placebo for both perampanel 8 mg (p = 0.002) and 12 mg (p < 0.001). The median percent change from baseline in seizure frequency per 28 days (intent-to-treat analysis) was −9.7%, −30.5%, and −17.6% for placebo, 8 mg, and 12 mg, respectively, with significant reductions compared with placebo for both 8 mg (p < 0.001) and 12 mg (p = 0.011). For complex partial seizures plus partial seizures that secondarily generalized, the median percent change in frequency was −32.7% (8 mg), −21.9 (12 mg), and −8.1% (placebo), with significant reductions for both 8 mg (p < 0.001) and 12 mg (p = 0.005). The most frequent (occurring in ≥10% of patients in any treatment group) treatment-emergent AEs were dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, and headache, with an apparent dose effect suggested for all except headache.
Significance: This phase III trial demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with once-daily perampanel at 8 mg and 12 mg was effective in improving seizure control in patients 12 years and older with refractory partial-onset seizures. These study results also demonstrated that once-daily doses of 8 mg and 12 mg were safe and acceptably tolerated in this study. Perampanel demonstrated a favorable risk/benefit ratio in this population.