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Keywords:

  • cardiovascular health;
  • colorectal cancer;
  • falls;
  • fractures;
  • vitamin D

ABSTRACT

Increasing data suggest that many or most adults in the United States and Europe would benefit from vitamin D supplements. This review summarizes the benefits of vitamin D with the strongest evidence today from randomized controlled trials for fall and fracture prevention.

Beyond fall and fracture prevention, vitamin D may also reduce overall morbidity by multiple mechanisms. Prospective epidemiological studies supported by strong mechanistic evidence suggest a reduction of cardiovascular disease (incident hypertension and cardiovascular mortality) and colorectal cancer, extending to weaker evidence on immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory benefits of vitamin D.