• axon reflex;
  • axon reflex flare;
  • intraepidermal nerve fiber density;
  • QSART;
  • small-fiber neuropathy

Abstract The size of the neurogenic axon reflex flare (ARFS) has been proposed to serve as a non-invasive measure of C-fiber neuropathies. This idea is based on the observation that ARFS is often reduced in patients with small-fiber neuropathies. In this study, we compared ARFS and electrically evoked axon reflex sweating with intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENF) in patients with peripheral neuropathy in order to validate these methods against an objective standard method of diagnosing small-fiber neuropathy. ARFS was significantly correlated with IENF, while axon reflex sweating was not correlated to IENF. We conclude that measurement of ARFS is a potential objective non-invasive diagnostic tool for analysis of C-fiber function in patients with small-fiber neuropathies.