An approximately 1400-bp region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced for 10 polar or near-polar strains putatively placed in the Oscillatorialean genera Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Lyngbya obtained from the University of Toronto Culture Collection to assess phylogenetic relationships. The strains were also examined for thylakoid structure and cell division type with TEM as well as traditional morphology with LM. Phylogenetic trees constructed using parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood methods were similar in topology. If the original epithets applied to the sequenced strains (both polar and those from GenBank) were used, it was clear that taxa were not monophyletic. However, using the revised taxonomic system of Anagnostidis and Komárek, we were able to reassign these strains to their current correct taxa (species, genus, and family). When these assignments were made, it was determined that the molecular sequence data analyses were congruent with morphology and ultrastructure. Nine of the polar strains were found to be new species, and eight were described as such: Arthronema gygaxiana Casamatta et Johansen sp. nov., Pseudanabaena tremula Johansen et Casamatta sp. nov., Leptolyngbya angustata Casamatta et Johansen sp. nov., Phormidium lumbricale Johansen et Casamatta sp. nov., Microcoleus glaciei Johansen et Casamatta sp. nov., Microcoleus rushforthii Johansen et Casamatta sp. nov., Microcoleus antarcticus Casamatta et Johansen sp. nov., Microcoleus acremannii Casamatta et Johansen sp. nov. Some genera (Leptolyngbya and Microcoleus) were clearly not monophyletic and require future revision.