ULTRASTRUCTURE AND LSU RDNA-BASED PHYLOGENY OF ESOPTRODINIUM GEMMA (DINOPHYCEAE), WITH NOTES ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND THE DESCRIPTION OF THE FLAGELLAR BASE AREA OF A PLANOZYGOTE

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  • 1Received 31 August 2005. Accepted 22 December 2005.

Abstract

A small, freshwater dinoflagellate with an incomplete cingulum, identified as Esoptrodinium gemma Javornický (=Bernardinium bernardinense sensu auctt. non sensu Chodat), was maintained in mixed culture and examined using light and serial section TEM. Vegetative flagellate cells, large cells with two longitudinal flagella (planozygotes), and cysts were examined. The cells displayed a red eyespot near the base of the longitudinal flagellum, made of two or three layers of pigment globules not bounded by a membrane. Yellow-green, band-shaped chloroplasts, bounded by three membranes and containing lamella with three thylakoids, were present in both flagellate cells and cysts. Most cells had food vacuoles, containing phagotrophically ingested chlamydomonads or chlorelloid green algae; ingestion occurred through the ventral area, involving a thin pseudopod apparently driven by the peduncle. The pusule was tubular, with numerous diverticula in its distal portion, and opened into the longitudinal flagellar canal. Three roots were associated with each pair of flagellar bases, both in vegetative cells and in a planozygote. The longitudinal microtubular root bifurcated around the longitudinal basal body. The planozygote contained a single peduncle and associated structures, and a single transverse flagellar canal with the two converging transverse flagella. Using two ciliates as outgroup species, phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and posterior probability (Bayesian analysis) supported a clade comprising Esoptrodinium, Tovellia, and Jadwigia.

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