Morphological studies of 16 strains belonging to the genus Monomorphina revealed a single, parietal, orbicular chloroplast in their cells. The chloroplast has a tendency to be perforated and disintegrates in aging populations and thus may appear to be many chloroplasts under the light microscope. A single chloroplast in the cells of Cryptoglena skujae is also parietally located and highly perforated. It never forms a globular and closed structure, but is open from the side of the furrow, resembling the letter C. We have verified the Monomorphina pyrum group (M. pyrum–like) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA and morphological data. The strain CCAC 0093 (misidentified as M. reeuwykiana) diverges first on the SSU rDNA phylogenetic tree. The rest of the M. pyrum–like strains form a tight cluster, subdivided into several smaller ones. Because morphological differences between the M. pyrum–like strains (including the strain CCAC 0093) do not conform to the tree topology, we suggest that they all (except the strain CCAC 0093) belong to M. pyrum. We designate a new species, M. pseudopyrum, for the strain CCAC 0093, solely on the basis of molecular characters. We also suggest that M. reeuwykiana and similar species should stay in Phacus and Lepocinclis unless detailed molecular and morphological studies show otherwise. Emended diagnoses of the genera Monomorphina and Cryptoglena and the species M. aenigmatica are also proposed, as well as the delimitation of an epitype for M. pyrum, the type species for the genus Monomorphina.