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  • Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R., Krupatkina, D. N., Nonogaki, H., Brown, P. J. P., Lewitus, A. J., Harvey, H. R. & Place, A. R. 2006. Species specificity and potential roles of Karlodinium micrum toxin. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 28:41521.
  • Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R., Krupatkina, D. N. & Place, A. R. 2007. Karlotoxin mediates grazing by Oxyrrhis marina on strains of Karlodinium veneficum. Harmful Algae 6:40012.
  • Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R. & Place, A. R. 2008a. Manger à trois: toxic vs. non-toxic Karlodinium veneficum strains with a predator, Oxyrrhis marina, and prey, Storeatula major. In Moestrup, Ø. [Ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 10710.
  • Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. & Place, A. R. 2008b. Can cryptophyte abundance triger toxic Karlodinium veneficum blooms in eutrophic estuaries? Harmful Algae 8:11928.
  • Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R. & Place, A. R. 2009. Environmental modulation of karlotoxin levels in strains of the cosmopolitan dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. (in press).
  • Andersen, R. A., Morton, S. L. & Sexton, J. P. 1997. Provasoli-Guillard national center for culture of marine phytoplankton 1997 list of strains. J. Phycol. 33(Suppl.):175.
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  • Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E. & Place, A. R. 2008b. Phylogeography of Atlantic Coast Karlodinium veneficum strains: a genetic marker correlates with toxin type. In Moestrup, Ø. [Ed.] Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 558.
  • Bachvaroff, T. R., Adolf, J. E., Squier, A., Harvey, H. R. & Place, A. R. 2008a. Liquid chromatographic–mass spectroscopic characterization, detection, and quantification of karlotoxins. Harmful Algae 7:47384.
  • Bai, X., Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T., Place, A. R. & Coats, D. W. 2007. The interplay between host toxin and parasitism by Amoebophrya. Harmful Algae 6:6708.
  • Ballantine, D. 1956. Two new marine species of Gymnodinium isolated from the Plymouth area. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 35:46774.
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  • Bjørnland, T., Fiksdahl, A., Skjetne, T., Krane, J. & Liaaen-Jensen, S. 2000. Gyroxanthin – the first allenic acetylenic carotenoid. Tetrahedron 56:904756.
  • Blackburn, S. I., Bolch, C. J., Haskard, K. A. & Hallegraeff, G. M. 2001. Reproductive compatibility among four global populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40:7887.
  • Bolch, C. J., Orr, P. T., Jones, G. J. & Blackburn, S. I. 1999. Genetic, morphological, and toxicological variation among globally distributed strains of Nodularia (Cyanobacteria). J. Phycol. 35:33955.
  • Bomber, J. W., Tindall, D. R. & Miller, D. M. 1989. Genetic variability in toxin potencies among seventeen clones of Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). J. Phycol. 25:61725.
  • Brownlee, E. F., Sellner, S. G., Sellner, K. G., Nonogaki, H., Adolf, J. E., Bachvaroff, T. R. & Place, A. R. 2008. Responses of Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) and C. ariakensis (Fujita) to bloom-forming phytoplankton including ichthyotoxic Karlodinium veneficum (Ballantine). J. Shellfish Res. 27:58191.
  • Cho, E. S. & Lee, H. J. 2001. Thecal plates, toxin content and growth of five clones of Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) isolated from Jinhae Bay, Korea. Phycologia 40:4359.
  • Costas, E. 1990. Genetic variability in growth rates of marine dinoflagellates. Genetica 82:99102.
  • Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. 2000. Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39:30217.
  • Deeds, J. R., Kibler, S. R., Tester, P. A. & Place, A. R. 2004. Geographic strain variation in toxin production in Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae) from southeastern United States. In Steidinger, K. A., Landsberg, J. H., Tomas, C. R. & Vargo, G. A. [Eds.] Harmful Algae 2002 Proceedings. Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersberg, pp. 1457.
  • Deeds, J. & Place, A. R. 2006. Sterol-specific membrane interactions with the toxins from Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae) – a strategy for self-protection? Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 28:4215.
  • Deeds, J. R., Reimschussel, R. & Place, A. R. 2006. Histopathological effects in fish exposed to the toxins from Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae). J. Aquat. Anim. Health 18:13648.
  • Deeds, J. R., Terlizzi, D. E., Adolf, J. E., Stoecker, D. K. & Place, A. R. 2002. Toxic activity from cultures of Karlodinium micrum (=Gyrodinium galatheanum) (Dinophyceae) – a dinoflagellate associated with fish mortalities in an estuarine aquaculture facility. Harmful Algae 1:16989.
  • Doyle, J. J. & Doyle, J. L. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19:1115.
  • Evans, K. M., Bates, S. S., Medlin, L. K. & Hayes, P. K. 2004. Microsatellite marker development and genetic variation in the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 40:91120.
  • Fensin, E. E. 2004. Occurrence and ecology of the dinoflagellate Karlodinium micrum in estuaries of North Carolina, USA. In Steidinger, K. A., Landsberg, J. H., Tomas, C. R. & Vargo, G. A. [Eds.] Harmful Algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Pete’s, Florida, pp. 624.
  • Goshorn, D., Deeds, J., Tango, P., Poukish, C., Place, A. R., McGinty, M., Butler, W., Luckett, C. & Magnien, R. 2004. Occurrence of Karlodinium micrum and its association with fish kills in Maryland estuaries. In Steidinger, K. A., Landsberg, J. H., Tomas, C. R. & Vargo, G. A. [Eds.] Proceedings of Harmful Algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersberg, pp. 3613.
  • Guillo, L., Nezan, E., Cueff, V., Erard-Le Denn, E., Cambon-Bonavita, M.-A., Gentien, P. & Barbier, G. 2002. Genetic diversity and molecular detection of three dinoflagellate genera (Alexandrium, Dinophysis, and Karenia) from French coasts. Protist 153:22338.
  • Hall, N. S., Litaker, R. W., Fensin, E., Adolf, J. E., Bowers, H. A., Place, A. R. & Paerl, H. W. 2008. Environmental factors contributing to the development and demise of a toxic dinoflagellate (Karlodinium veneficum) bloom in a shallow, eutrophic, lagoonal estuary. Estuar. Coasts 31:40218.
  • Johnsen, G. & Sakshaug, E. 1993. Bio-optical characteristics and photoadaptive responses in the toxic and bloom-forming dinoflagellates Gyrodinium aureolum, Gymnodinium galatheanum, and two strains of Prorocentrum minimum. J. Phycol. 29:62742.
  • Johnson, M. D., Rome, M. & Stoecker, D. S. 2003. Microzooplankton grazing on Prorocentrum minimum and Karlodinium micrum in Chesapeake Bay. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:23848.
  • Kempton, J. W., Lewitus, A. J., Deeds, J. R., Law, J. M. & Place, A. R. 2002. Toxicity of Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae) associated with a fish kill in a South Carolina brackish retention pond. Harmful Algae 1:23341.
  • Li, A., Adolf, J. E. & Stoecker, D. K. 1999. Feeding, pigmentation, photosynthesis and growth of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium galatheanum. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 19:16376.
  • Litaker, R. W., Vandersea, M. W., Kibler, S. R., Reece, K. S., Stokes, N. A., Steidinger, K. A., Millie, D. F., Bendis, B. J., Pigg, R. J. & Tester, P. A. 2003. Identification of Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) and Pfiesteria-like organsims using internal transcribed spacer-specific PCR assays. J. Phycol. 39:75461.
  • Schmidt, L. E. & Hansen, P. J. 2001. Allelopathy in the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina polylepis: effect of cell concentration, growth phase and pH. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 216:6781.
  • Scholin, C., Villac, M. C., Buck, K., Krupp, J. M., Powers, D. A., Fryxell, G. A. & Chavez, F. 1994. Ribosomal DNA sequences discriminate among toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species. Nat. Toxins 2:15265.
  • Stoecker, D. K., Adolf, J. E., Place, A. R., Glibert, P. M. & Meritt, D. 2008. Effects of the dinoflagellates Karlodinium veneficum and Prorocentrum minimum on early life history stages of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Biol. 154:8190.
  • Stolte, W., Kraay, G. W., Noordeloos, A. A. M. & Riegman, R. 2000. Genetic and physiological variation in pigment composition of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and the potential use of its pigment ratios as a quantitative physiological marker. J. Phycol. 36:52939.
  • Tengs, T., Bowers, H. A., Ziman, A. P., Stoecker, D. K. & Oldach, D. W. 2001. Genetic polymorphism in Gymnodinium galatheanum chloroplast DNA sequences and development of a molecular detection assay. Mol. Ecol. 10:51523.
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  • Van Heukelem, L. & Thomas, C. S. 2001. Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments. J. Chromatogr. A 910:3149.
  • Waggett, R. J., Tester, P. A. & Place, A. R. 2008. Anti-grazing properties of toxic Karlodinium veneficum: karlotoxin as a grazing deterrent in predator-prey interactions with the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 366:3142.
  • Wilson, A. E., Sarnelle, O., Nelan, B. A., Salmon, T. P., Gehringer, M. M. & Hay, M. E. 2005. Genetic variation of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa within and among lakes: implications for harmful algal blooms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:612633.