Morphological and molecular studies, as well as original literature reexamination, necessitate establishment of five Euglena species with a single axial, stellate chloroplast [Euglena viridis (O. F. Müller) Ehrenberg 1830, Euglena pseudoviridis Chadefaud 1937, Euglena stellata Mainx 1926, Euglena pseudostellata sp. nov., and Euglena cantabrica Pringsheim 1956], three species with two chloroplasts (Euglena geniculata Dujardin ex Schmitz 1884, Euglena chadefaudii Bourrelly 1951, and Euglena pseudochadefaudii sp. nov.), and one species with three chloroplasts (Euglena tristella Chu 1946). The primary morphological features, allowing distinction of the considered species are the presence and the shape of mucocysts, as well as the number of chloroplasts. Spherical mucocysts occur in E. cantabrica and E. geniculata, while spindle-shaped mucocysts are present in E. stellata, E. pseudostellata, E. chadefaudii, E. pseudochadefaudii, and E. tristella. No mucocysts are observed in E. viridis and E. pseudoviridis. Two new species (E. pseudochadefaudii sp. nov. and E. pseudostellata sp. nov.) differ from the respective species, E. chadefaudii and E. stellata, only at the molecular level. Molecular signatures and characteristic sequences are designated for nine distinguished species. Emended diagnoses for all and delimitation of epitypes for seven species (except E. viridis and E. tristella) are proposed.