Chara globularis Thuillier (=f. globularis sensu R. D. Wood) is a widespread species of the genus and inhabits fresh- and brackish-water environments. In an attempt to reexamine the taxonomic status of C. globularis collected from Japan, we reassessed vegetative and oospore morphology of Japanese material and herbarium specimens originating from Europe (including the type specimen) and conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses based on rbcL gene sequences. Although the other vegetative morphologies were consistent with the description of C. globularis f. globularis sensu R. D. Wood, we identified two types of branchlets within the Japanese materials: one has elongate end segments (EL type), and the other has short end segments (SH type) corresponding to the type material. Moreover, the oospore wall of the EL type was different from that in the SH type. The oospores of the EL type were dark brown to reddish brown and had a spongy pattern with the pusticular elevations on the fossa wall, whereas the fossa wall of the SH type was black with a granulate to papillate or fine pusticular pattern. In addition, our sequence data demonstrated that these two types are separated phylogenetically from each other. Therefore, we describe the EL type as a new species, C. leptospora sp. nov.