Members of the Closterium peracerosum–strigosum–littorale (C. psl.) complex are unicellular charophycean algae in which there are two modes of zygospore formation, heterothallic and homothallic. A homothallic strain of Closterium (designation, kodama20) was isolated from a Japanese rice paddy field. Based on alignment of the 1506 group-I introns, which interrupt nuclear SSU rDNAs, homothallic kodama20 is most closely related to the heterothallic mating group II-B, which is partially sexually isolated from group II-A. Time-lapse photography of the conjugation process in kodama20 revealed that most of the observed zygospores originated from one vegetative cell. The sexual conjugation process consisted of five stages: (1) cell division resulting in the formation of two sister gametangial cells from one vegetative cell, (2) formation of a sexual pair between the two sister gametangial cells (or between gametangial cells of another adjoined individual), (3) formation of conjugation papillae, (4) release of gametic protoplasts from both members of a pair, and (5) formation of the zygospore by protoplast fusion. For conjugation to progress, the cell density and light condition in the culture was critical. We suggested the presence of a conjugation promotion factor.