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HETEROCAPSA ARCTICA SUBSP. FRIGIDA SUBSP. NOV. (PERIDINIALES, DINOPHYCEAE)—DESCRIPTION OF A NEW DINOFLAGELLATE AND ITS OCCURRENCE IN THE BALTIC SEA1
Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010
© 2010 Phycological Society of America
Journal of Phycology
Volume 46, Issue 4, pages 751–762, August 2010
How to Cite
Rintala, J.-M., Hällfors, H., Hällfors, S., Hällfors, G., Majaneva, M. and Blomster, J. (2010), HETEROCAPSA ARCTICA SUBSP. FRIGIDA SUBSP. NOV. (PERIDINIALES, DINOPHYCEAE)—DESCRIPTION OF A NEW DINOFLAGELLATE AND ITS OCCURRENCE IN THE BALTIC SEA. Journal of Phycology, 46: 751–762. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00868.x
Received 21 April 2009. Accepted 28 January 2010.
- Issue published online: 2 AUG 2010
- Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010
- Baltic Sea;
- cold-water dinoflagellate;
- Heterocapsa arctica;
- Heterocapsa arctica subsp. frigida subsp. nov.;
- new subspecies;
- sea ice
Characteristics important in identification of Heterocapsa species (i.e., thecal plate pattern, body scale structure, and shape and position of the nucleus and pyrenoid) are practically identical in the dinoflagellate investigated here and in Heterocapsa arctica T. Horig. described from the Canadian Arctic. Analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences confirms that the two dinoflagellates are very closely related; however, there is a clear difference in their size and shape. Our experiments show that the low-salinity Baltic Sea brackish water does not reduce the size of the marine H. arctica to match that of the Baltic Sea morphotype. On the basis of these dissimilarities in general morphology and its geographic isolation in the Baltic Sea, we consider our material sufficiently differentiated from the typical H. arctica to warrant the status of a new subspecies, H. arctica subsp. frigida subsp. nov. Being of a distinct cell shape, the occurrence of subsp. frigida has been recorded in Algaline phytoplankton monitoring data collected since 1993. Although it has never been responsible for high biomass blooms, it commonly occurs in spring in the Northern Baltic Proper and in the western Gulf of Finland, when the water temperatures are <5°C.