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Appendix S1. Comparison of previous descriptions.

Table S1. GenBank sampled taxa and outgroup taxa with accession numbers, most recent source publications, and collection localities. *Denotes a sample listed in two separate publications as being the ITS complement for two different rbcL accessions.

Figure S1.Ulva compressa Linnaeus. I: Habit range and anatomical features. (A) LK-030 (Flinders Jetty, Vic.); (C) LK-018 (Point Lonsdale, Vic.); (B, E–H) LK-028 (Point Lonsdale). (A) Narrow tubular fronds from midintertidal concrete steps subject to strong surge on high tides. (B) A tubular, only slightly compressed basally branched thallus from low-intertidal concrete below collection site of LK-027. (C) A single, broadly expanded thallus with ruffled margins, the plant on rocks at 2.5 m depth under a jetty. (D) A cluster of basally tubular, distally flattened axes from mideulittoral concrete steps in a band immediately adjacent to the thalli of sample LK-027. (E) Broadly rounded apices and nearly uniform widths of first-order laterals at the base of a thallus. (F) Rhizoidal cells at the base of a primary lateral on a lower main axis. (G) Surface view at midthallus, the cells cuboidal to polygonal but evenly separated and with generally rounded corners. (H) Portion of a lower cross-section showing a palisade of elongate cells with broadly rounded, inwardly directed papillate contours.

Figure S2.Ulva compressa Linnaeus. II. Branch and cellular details. (A, B, G) LK-028 (Point Lonsdale, Vic.); (C, F) LK-015 (Point Lonsdale, Vic.); (D, E) LK-026 (Point Lonsdale, Vic.). (A) The basal section of a young plant showing a high degree of branching and mixed stages of development of young branches. (B) Tendency for cells to align longitudinally in a lower lateral branch. (C) Cross-section of a nearly tubular distal lateral, the cells rectilinear and embedded in a narrow extracellular matrix. (D) Cross-section of a frond in the process of becoming compressed, the tube composed of a palisade of closely abutting rectilinear cells. (E) Cross-section of the central region of a flattened frond, the two layers closely adherent but not strongly bonded. (F) Lateral portion of the cross-section of sample LK-028, the two layers of rectilinear cells marginally separated. (G) Rounded to angular cells of a lower lateral-branch axis, each with one or two (arrows) prominent pyrenoids.

Figure S3.Ulva fasciata Delile. (A–F) LK-050 (lower-eulittoral/shallow sublittoral limestone south of Point Peron, Western Australia). (A) Typical thallus of narrow dichotomising blades arising abruptly from a narrow basal stalk (arrow). (B) Tessellated pattern and unordered arrangement of cuboidal to polygonal cells of a lower blade surface. (C) Single pyrenoids (arrows) in cells of a lower blade. (D) Cross-section of a distal blade, the cells ovoid to rectilinear and with low length:breadth ratios. (E) Cross-section of a lower blade, the cells of both layers forming regular palisades of rectilinear cells with greater length:breadth ratios. (F) Higher-magnification view of (E), the cells mostly with squared bases and broadly domed apices in which the chloroplasts are concentrated.

Figure S4.Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus. (A–I) LK-002 (freshwater outflow stream at Piccaninny Ponds, South Australia). (A–D) Plant habits, ranging from clusters (A) and individual narrow linear fronds (B, D) to broader, variously contorted axes (C). (E) The base of a mature frond, composed almost entirely of aggregated colorless rhizoids with small numbers of pigmented cells at the surface. (F) Angular, unordered cells at midfrond. (G) Single pyrenoids (arrows) in cells toward the base of the frond. (H) A basal portion in which the angular cells locally become somewhat longitudinally aligned. (I) The cuboidal to slightly rectilinear profiles of cells in cross-section of a distal frond.

Figure S5.Ulva tanneri. (A–H) LK-013 (lower Brisbane River, Brisbane, Qld.). (A, B) Herbarium-mounted whole thalli, the narrow bases umbilicate and the distal fronds friable and irregularly contoured. (C) The centrally positioned holdfast of a liquid-preserved specimen. (D) The irregular profiles and rounded contours of the unordered cells of a midfrond. (E) Cross-sections through several layers of thallus, the cells ovoid to nearly circular in profile and seemingly laxly aggregated. (F) Lower frond cells in longitudinal section, the distal poles broadly rounded. (G) Longitudinal section of a lower frond at the transition to the basal rhizoidal region, the cells ovoid and apically rounded. (H) Longitudinal section through the base of a frond near the holdfast, the central region mostly composed of a dense aggregate of colorless rhizoids.

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JPY_909_sm_FigS3.tif3478KSupporting info item
JPY_909_sm_FigS4.tif3476KSupporting info item
JPY_909_sm_FigS5.tif3477KSupporting info item
JPY_909_sm_TableS1.doc97KSupporting info item

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