The present study describes a new dinoflagellate genus, Barrufeta N. Sampedro et S. Fraga gen. nov., with one new species, B. bravensis Sampedro et S. Fraga sp. nov., isolated from the Costa Brava (NW Mediterranean Sea). The dinoflagellate was characterized at the genus and species levels by LM and EM; LSU and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences; and HPLC analyses of the pigments, fatty acids, and possible presence of toxins of several cultured strains. The new Barrufeta species is oval shaped (22–35 μm long and 16–25 μm wide) and dorsoventrally flattened. It possesses numerous small chloroplasts that radiate from two large equatorially located pyrenoids and is a typical peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. The nucleus is in the anterior part of the epicone. The apical groove has a characteristic “Smurf-cap” shape that runs counterclockwise on the epicone and terminates on its right posterior part. B. bravensis is similar to the previously described species Gyrodinium resplendens Hulburt in its external morphology, but the original report of the latter lacked a description of the complete shape of the apical groove. It is therefore likely that some of the G. resplendens species reported in the literature are Barrufeta since they possess a Barrufeta-type apical groove. Fatty acids of Barrufeta were more similar to those of Karenia brevis than those obtained from other unarmored analyzed species including three species of Gymnodinium and Akashiwo sanguinea.