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Keywords:

  • 3T3-L1 adipocytes;
  • adipocyte differentiation;
  • ROS production;
  • seaweed extracts;
  • total phenol content

Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g−1), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g−1), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g−1). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (< 0.05). Moreover, treatment with several seaweed extracts including D. undulata, Sargassum micracanthum, Chondrus ocellatus, Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R2 = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity.

Table 1.   List of Korean seaweed extracts of 49 species evaluated in this experiment.
TypeNo.Scientific nameCollection timeTP1 (μg GAE · g−1)
  1. GAE, gallic acid equivalents; SE, seaweed extracts.

  2. 1TP, total phenol content is micrograms of total phenol contents per gram of seaweed extract based on gallic acid as standard. The values are means ± SD from three replications.

  3. a–sMeans in the same column not sharing a common letter are significantly different (< 0.05) by Duncan’s multiple test.

Brown macroalgaeSE-1Chondracanthus tenellus (Harv.) Hommers.April 27, 2006112.8 ± 15.1lm
SE-2Colpomenia sinusa (F. C. Mertens ex Roth) Derbes et Solier in CastagneMay 11, 200644.0 ± 4.1opqrs
SE-3Dictyopteris divaricata (Okamura) OkamuraApril 6, 200641.5 ± 5.6pqrs
SE-4Dictyopteris pacifica (Yendo) I. K. Hwang, H.-S. Kim et W. J. LeeApril 27, 200680.9 ± 8.3mno
SE-5Dictyopteris prolifera (Okamura) OkamuraNovember 26, 200748.4 ± 3.0nopqrs
SE-6Dictyopteris undulata HolmesJuly 28, 2007641.3 ± 70.7b
SE-7Dictyota asiatica I. K. HwangApril 6, 200652.9 ± 7.6nonopqr
SE-8Ecklonia cava Kjellm.October 22, 2006681.1 ± 16.0a
SE-9Ecklonia stolonifera OkamuraNovember 26, 200736.5 ± 3.4pqrs
SE-10Endarachne binghamiae J. AgardhMarch 10, 200650.4 ± 2.6nopqrs
SE-11Hizikia fusiformis (Harv.) OkamuraJuly 23, 200616.4 ± 1.2rs
SE-12Hydroclathrus clathratus (C. Agardh) M. HoweMay 11, 200618.1 ± 0.9rs
SE-13Ishige okamurae YendoMay 26, 2006237.4 ± 1.6h
SE-14Lethesia difformis (L.) Aresch.May 11, 200611.2 ± 1.9s
SE-15Myelophycus simplex (Harv.) Papenf.April 27, 200639.5 ± 3.2pqrs
SE-16Padina arborescens HolmesJuly 29, 2007172.9 ± 23.1ij
SE-17Sargassum fulvellum (Turner) C. AgardhApril 27, 2006119.1 ± 5.6kl
SE-18Sargassum micracanthum (Kütz.) Endl.December 21, 2006468.0 ± 22.7e
SE-19Sargassum patens C. AgardhJanuary 21, 200741.5 ± 5.7pqrs
SE-20Sargassum confusum C. Agardh f. validum YendoMarch 8, 2008110.9 ± 3.5lm
SE-21Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. AgardhMarch 1, 200684.8 ± 9.4lmn
SE-22Sargassum macrocarpum C. AgardhJanuary 21, 2007353.9 ± 59.1g
SE-23Sargassum muticum (Yendo) FensoltJanuary 21, 200772.1 ± 14.9nop
SE-24Sargassum nipponium YendoApril 6, 200654.0 ± 3.5nopqr
SE-25Sargassum sagamianum YendoMarch 8, 200841.0 ± 6.7pqrs
SE-26Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) KuntzeJuly 23, 200627.7 ± 0.8qrs
SE-27Scytosiphon gracilis KogameMay 26, 200630.2 ± 5.6qrs
SE-28Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngb.) LinkMay 11, 200666.5 ± 8.9nopq
Red macroalgaeSE-29Bonnemaisonia hamifera Har.April 27, 200644.1 ± 2.3opqrs
SE-30Callophyllis crispata OkamuraMay 11, 200637.6 ± 12.6pqrs
SE-31Chondria crassicaulis Harv.May 11, 200645.4 ± 4.4opqrs
SE-32Chondrus crispus Stackh.May 26, 200640.7 ± 8.0pqrs
SE-33Chondrus ocellatus HolmesMay 11, 200647.2 ± 1.7nopqrs
SE-34Gelidium amansii (J. V. Lamour.) J. V. Lamour.April 27, 2006525.3 ± 35.9d
SE-35Gloioperltis furcata (Postels et Rupr.) J. AgardhMay 26, 2006147.7 ± 6.4jk
SE-36Gloioperltis complanta (Harv.) YamadaMay 26, 200658.2 ± 6.4nopq
SE-37Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenf.March 6, 200855.1 ± 7.5nopqr
SE-38Grateloupia elliptica HolmesMay 26, 2006154.4 ± 12.9j
SE-39Grateloupia filicina (J. V. Lamour.) C. AgardhMay 11, 200638.2 ± 2.2pqrs
SE-40Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawag.July 23, 200632.7 ± 3.0pqrs
SE-41Laurencia intermedia J. V. Lamour.May 11, 2006560.9 ± 48.1c
SE-42Laurencia intricata J. V. Lamour.April 27, 200635.4 ± 4.0pqrs
SE-43Laurencia okamurae YamadaMay 11, 2006193.2 ± 41.9i
SE-44Lomentaria hakodatensis YendoApril 27, 2006165.2 ± 15.1ij
SE-45Polyopes affinis (Harv.) Kawag. et H.-W. WangMay 26, 200642.9 ± 2.3opqrs
SE-46Polysiphonia morrowii Harv.May 11, 2006392.4 ± 40.3f
SE-47Prionitis cornea (Okamura) E. Y. DawsonOctober 22, 200647.9 ± 3.6nopqrs
Green macroalgaeSE-48Enteromorpha prolifera (O. F. Müll.) J. AgardhMarch 26, 200642.0 ± 5.3pqrs
SE-49Ulva pertusa Kjellm.April 27, 200648.3 ± 3.8nopqrs