In Japan, the bloom seasons of two toxic species, namely, Alexandrium catenella (Whedon et Kof.) Balech and Alexandrium tamiyavanichii Balech, sometimes overlap with those of three nontoxic Alexandrium species, namely, Alexandrium affine (H. Inouye et Fukuyo) Balech, Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech, and Alexandrium pseudogoniaulax (Biecheler) T. Horig. ex Y. Kita et Fukuyo. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay has been developed that enables simultaneous detection of six Alexandrium species on the basis of differences in the lengths of the PCR products. The accuracy of the multiplex PCR system was assessed using 101 DNA templates of the six target Alexandrium species and 27 DNA templates of 11 nontarget species (128 DNA templates in total). All amplicons obtained from the 101 DNA templates of the target species were appropriately identified, whereas all 27 DNA templates of the nontarget species were not amplified. Species-specific identification by the multiplex PCR assay was certainly possible from single cells of the target species.