These authors contributed equally to this work.
DINOPHYSIS CAUDATA (DINOPHYCEAE) SEQUESTERS AND RETAINS PLASTIDS FROM THE MIXOTROPHIC CILIATE PREY MESODINIUM RUBRUM1
Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012
© 2012 Phycological Society of America
Journal of Phycology
Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 569–579, June 2012
How to Cite
Kim, M., Nam, S. W., Shin, W., Coats, D. W. and Park, M. G. (2012), DINOPHYSIS CAUDATA (DINOPHYCEAE) SEQUESTERS AND RETAINS PLASTIDS FROM THE MIXOTROPHIC CILIATE PREY MESODINIUM RUBRUM. Journal of Phycology, 48: 569–579. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01150.x
Received 22 July 2011. Accepted 8 December 2011.
- Issue published online: 1 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 24 MAR 2012 04:01AM EST
- Dinophysis caudata;
- Mesodinium rubrum;
- single-cell TEM;
“Phototrophic”Dinophysis Ehrenberg species are well known to have chloroplasts of a cryptophyte origin, more specifically of the cryptophyte genus complex Teleaulax/Geminigera. Nonetheless, whether chloroplasts of “phototrophic”Dinophysis are permanent plastids or periodically derived kleptoplastids (stolen chloroplasts) has not been confirmed. Indeed, molecular sequence data and ultrastructural data lead to contradictory interpretations about the status of Dinophysis plastids. Here, we used established cultures of D. caudata strain DC-LOHABE01 and M. rubrum strain MR-MAL01 to address the status of Dinophysis plastids. Our approach was to experimentally generate D. caudata with “green” plastids and then follow the ingestion and fate of “reddish-brown” prey plastids using light microscopy, time-lapse videography, and single-cell TEM. Our results for D. caudata resolve the apparent discrepancy between morphological and molecular data by showing that plastids acquired when feeding on M. rubrum are structurally modified and retained as stellate compound chloroplasts characteristic of Dinophysis species.