Seasonal succession of phytoplankton was investigated in a shallow pond in northern Taiwan from August 2009 to January 2011, with particular reference to the dynamics of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya et Subba Raju. The abundances of the representative species in the pond increased during high-temperature seasons, whereas only C. raciborskii became dominant in the pond from summer to autumn in both 2009 and 2010. The high shade tolerance of C. raciborskii was likely one of the factors that enabled the cyanobacterium to grow during the summer when the transparency was low. Moreover, the heterocyst production of C. raciborskii was enhanced during summer when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen was low, implying that nitrogen fixation also played an important role in supporting the growth of C. raciborskii. Autumnal rainfall was a critical factor in the collapse of C. raciborskii blooms. C. raciborskii formed blooms with relatively small trichomes, whereas larger trichomes dominated during winter. The dependence of the trade-off between growth rate and trichome size on temperature was assumed to be an adaptation strategy of C. raciborskii.